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See also: Fortis



Learned borrowing from Latin fortis (strong). Doublet of fort and forte.



fortis (not comparable)

  1. (phonetics) Strongly articulated (of a consonant), hence voiceless.
    Synonym: tense
    Antonym: lenis
    • 2004, Stephan Gramley, Michael Pätzold, A Survey of Modern English, Routledge, →ISBN, page 80:
      All vowels, whether short or complex, are relatively shorter when followed by a fortis consonant and relatively longer when followed by a lenis one or, for those where this is possible, when no consonant follows (in free or unchecked syllables).


fortis (plural fortes)

  1. (phonetics) A fortis consonant.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Latin forctis, from Proto-Italic *forktis, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (to rise, high, hill) (> Proto-Indo-European *bʰérǵʰ-ti-s) or Proto-Indo-European *dʰerǵʰ- (to bind fast, to be firm, strong); in the latter case, an earlier Proto-Italic form of the word *θorktis can be reconstructed.

Alternative forms[edit]



fortis (neuter forte, comparative fortior, superlative fortissimus, adverb fortiter); third-declension two-termination adjective

  1. (physically) strong, powerful
    Synonyms: praevalēns, potis, potēns, validus, strēnuus, ingēns, firmus, compos
    Antonyms: dēbilis, languidus, aeger, fractus, īnfirmus, tenuis, obnoxius, inops
  2. (figuratively) firm, resolute, steadfast, stout
    Synonyms: fīxus, tenāx, inexōrābilis, obstinātus
  3. (figuratively) courageous, brave
    Antonym: imbēcillus
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Fasti 1.493–494:
      omne solum fortī patria est, ut piscibus aequor,
      ut volucrī, vacuō quicquid in orbe patet.
      Every land is home to the brave, as to fishes the sea,
      as to birds for every void whatsoever in the open world.
  4. (figuratively) manly, mannish (answering to the Greek ἀνδρεῖος) The template Template:rfclarify does not use the parameter(s):
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Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative fortis forte fortēs fortia
Genitive fortis fortium
Dative fortī fortibus
Accusative fortem forte fortēs
Ablative fortī fortibus
Vocative fortis forte fortēs fortia
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.



  1. genitive singular of fors

Further reading[edit]

  • fortis”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • fortis”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • fortis in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • fortis in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • be brave: fortem te praebe
    • (ambiguous) quite accidentally, fortuitously: temere et fortuito; forte (et) temere
    • (ambiguous) to be brave by nature: animo forti esse
    • (ambiguous) personally brave: manu fortis
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “fortis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 236