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From Proto-Indo-Aryan *dʰárati, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *dʰárati, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰér-e-ti, thematic present of *dʰer- (to hold). Cognate with Old Persian 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎫𐎡𐎹 (d-a-r-y-t-i-y /dārayatiy/), Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti.


  • (Vedic) IPA(key): /d̪ʱɐ́.ɽɐ.t̪i/
  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈd̪ʱɐ.ɽɐ.t̪i/
  • Verb[edit]

    धरति (dhárati) (class-1, P. Ā., root √dhṛ)

    1. to hold, bear (also bring forth), carry, maintain, preserve, keep, possess, have, use, employ, practise, undergo
    2. (with or scil. आत्मानम् (ātmānam), जीवितम् (jīvitam), प्राणान् (prāṇān), देहम् (deham), शरीरम् (śarīram) etc.) to preserve soul or body, continue living, survive (especially future dhariṣyati; compare passive below)
    3. to hold back, keep down, stop, restrain, suppress, resist
    4. to place or fix in, bestow or confer on (locative)
    5. to destine for (dative; Ā. also to be destined for or belong to)
    6. to present to (genitive)
    7. to direct or turn (attention, mind, etc.) towards, fix or resolve upon (locative or dative)
    8. (Ā) to be ready or prepared for
    9. (Ā, P) to owe anything (accusative) to (dative or genitive)
    10. to prolong (in pronunciation)
    11. to quote, cite
    12. (with गर्भम् (garbham)) to conceive, be pregnant (older garbham- √bhṛ)
    13. (with दण्डम् (daṇḍam), दमम् (damam)) to inflict punishment on (locative)
    14. (with केशान् (keśān), or श्मश्रु (śmaśru)) to let the hair or beard grow
    15. (with रश्मीन् (raśmīn) or प्रहरान् (praharān)) to draw the reins tight
    16. (with धरमम् (dharamam)) to fulfil a duty
    17. (with व्रतम् (vratám)) to observe or keep a vow
    18. (with धारणाम् (dhāraṇām)) to practise self-control
    19. (with ?) to perform penance
    20. (with मूर्ध्ना (mūrdhnā) or मूर्ध्नि (mūrdhni), शिरसा (śirasā) or शिरसि (śirasi)) to bear on the head, honour highly
    21. (with or scil. तुलया (tulayā)) to hold in a balance, weigh, measure
    22. (with or scil. मनसा (manasā)) to bear in mind, recollect, remember
    23. (with समये (samaye)) to hold to an agreement, cause to make a compact
    24. (passive) to be borne
    25. to be firm, keep steady
    26. to continue living, exist, remain
    27. to begin, resolve upon, undertake (dative; accusative or infinitive)
    28. (intensive) to hold fast, bear firmly, fasten



    • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 0519