caled

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Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *kaletos (compare Breton calet, Middle Irish calath, calad), from Proto-Indo-European *kal- (hard).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

caled (feminine singular caled, plural caled, equative caleted, comparative caletach, superlative caletaf)

  1. hard
    1. rough, cruel, unfeeling, sore, severe (especially of weather, season, etc.), hard to bear
    2. strict, strait
    3. stingy, niggardly, illiberal, thrifty; obstinate
    4. abstruse, difficult, hard (to understand, explain, perform, etc.)
      Mae'r gwaith yn galed iawnThe work is very hard
    5. hardy, tough
    6. (of water) hard
    7. (phonology, of a consonant) hard, voiceless

Synonyms[edit]

Noun[edit]

caled m (plural {{{2}}})

  1. battle, hard struggle, distress; hard object
  2. miser, niggard

Related terms[edit]

  • caledu (to harden, become hardened, dry, grow unfeeling or stubborn, render hard or obdurate; to pronounce as voiceless; to grow stingy or niggardly; to become costive or constipated, constipate; to temper)

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
caled galed nghaled chaled
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • caled”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, 2014