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See also: Harden and härden



From Middle English hardenen, equivalent to hard +‎ -en. Cognate with Danish hærdne (to harden; cure), Swedish hårdna (to harden), Norwegian herdne (to harden), Icelandic harðna (to harden).


harden (third-person singular simple present hardens, present participle hardening, simple past and past participle hardened)

  1. (intransitive) To become hard (tough, resistant to pressure).
  2. (transitive, ergative) To make something hard or harder (tough, resistant to pressure).
  3. (transitive, figuratively) To strengthen.
    • 2018 May 26, Daniel Taylor, “Liverpool go through after Mohamed Salah stops Manchester City fightback”, in The Guardian (London)[1]:
      Ramos had locked Salah’s right arm and turned him, judo-style, as they lost balance going for the same ball. Television replays hardened the suspicion it was a calculated move on Ramos’s part and, when Salah landed with a hell of a thud, the damage was considerable.
  4. (transitive, computing) To modify (a website or other system) to make it resistant to malicious attacks.
  5. (transitive, dated) To become or make (a person or thing) resistant or less sensitive.
    • KJV, Exodus 4:21
      When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.
  6. (phonology) To become or make (a consonant) more fortis.

Derived terms[edit]





  • (file)



  1. (transitive) To render hard(er), more resistant etc.; to temper metal; to steel nerves
    De geharde veteranen verbeten de pijn zonder jammeren.
    The hardened veterans bore the pain without whining.
  2. (transitive) to endure, bear, stand, tolerate


Inflection of harden (weak)
infinitive harden
past singular hardde
past participle gehard
infinitive harden
gerund harden n
verbal noun
present tense past tense
1st person singular hard hardde
2nd person sing. (jij) hardt hardde
2nd person sing. (u) hardt hardde
2nd person sing. (gij) hardt hardde
3rd person singular hardt hardde
plural harden hardden
subjunctive sing.1 harde hardde
subjunctive plur.1 harden hardden
imperative sing. hard
imperative plur.1 hardt
participles hardend gehard
1) Archaic.




  1. Plural form of harde