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U+500C, 倌
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-500C

[U+500B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+500D]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人十口口 (OJRR), four-corner 23277, composition)

  1. a boy in the employ of a teahouse, tavern, or restaurant; assistant in wine shop
  2. groom (keeper of domestic animals), herdsman

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 107, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 759
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 184, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+500C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Etymology[edit]

Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)(j)wal (STEDT); cognate with Tibetan ཁོལ་པོ (khol po, servant), Burmese ကျွန် (kywan, slave), Proto-Loloish *C-kywan¹ (slave), (OC *ɡʷraːns, “servant; official”).

(OC *koːn, “official”) is probably the same word as (OC *koːn, *kroːns) (Schuelsser, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (28) (28)
Final () (62) (70)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () I II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑn/ /kˠuanH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷɑn/ /kʷᵚanH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑn/ /kuɐnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwan/ /kwaɨnH/
Li
Rong
/kuɑn/ /kuanH/
Wang
Li
/kuɑn/ /kwanH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑn/ /kwanH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guān guàn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwænH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʷˁra[n]-s/
English servant, groom

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4437 4458
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*koːn/ /*kroːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. servant who drives a carriage
  2. groom; keeper of domestic animals
  3. worker in a teahouse or restaurant who provides service

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. assistant in wine shop
  2. groom (keeper of domestic animals)

Readings[edit]

  • On (unclassified): かん (kan)
  • Kun: とねり (toneri, )

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (gwan))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: quan, quán

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.