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See also: Ille, 'ille, and -ille



From Latin.



  1. he




  1. Contraction of i leith.

Further reading[edit]


Alternative forms[edit]

  • olle (for the pronoun; archaic)


From Old Latin olle (he, that) (also ollus, olla), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ol-no- or *h₂l̥-no-, from *h₂el- (beyond, other). Cognate with Latin uls (beyond), alius (other), and alter (the other); Umbrian ulu (to that place), Old Church Slavonic лани (lani, last year, literally in that (year)).

Initial i- from o- has no parallel case and may be owing to contamination from is, iste or due to the palatalizing effect of l exilis.



ille (feminine illa, neuter illud); demonstrative pronoun (pronominal)

  1. (determiner) that; those (in the plural)
    • 4th century, St Jerome, Vulgate, Tobit 3:24
      in illo tempore exauditae sunt preces amborum in conspectu gloriae summi Dei
      at that time the prayers of them both were heard in the sight of the glory of the most high God
  2. (pronoun) that one; that (thing); those ones (in the plural); those (things); he, she, it
  3. (Vulgar Latin) he, she, it (third-person personal pronoun)
  4. (Medieval Latin, Vulgar Latin) the (used as a definite article)


Demonstrative pronoun (pronominal).

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ille illa illud illī illae illa
Genitive illīus illōrum illārum illōrum
Dative illī illīs
Accusative illum illam illud illōs illās illa
Ablative illō illā illō illīs

Usage notes[edit]

  • This demonstrative determiner/pronoun is used to refer to a person or thing, or persons or things, away from both speaker and listener. It contrasts with hic (this), which refers to people or things near the speaker, and iste (this/that), which refers to people or things near the listener.
  • As Latin had no person pronouns specifically meaning "he", "she" or "it", any of ille, iste, hic or (most frequently) is could assume that function. In Vulgar latin, ille weakened its meaning and frequently came to mean merely "the" (as a determiner) or "he/she/it" (as a pronoun). This is in fact the origin of French le (the) and il (he), Spanish el (the) and él (he), etc. The original meaning of a far demonstrative was maintained when augmented with ecce or eccum, cf. Italian quello, Spanish aquel.
  • In Classical usage, ille can have a secondary, appreciative function of casting the referent in a positive light: ille homō can mean "that (famous/renowned) man". The opposite, pejorative function is assumed by iste, and iste homō frequently means "that (no good) man". Such functions were not present in Vulgar Latin, and iste came to mean "this" (cf. Spanish este).

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


As definite article

As personal pronoun

As determiner

As determiner, from eccu(m)/*accu (from eccum, from ecce eum) + ille


  • ille in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ille in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ille in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles summus vir illius aetatis
    • a man of considerable learning for those times: vir ut temporibus illis doctus
    • hence these tears; there's the rub: hinc illae lacrimae (proverb.) (Ter. And. 1. 1. 99; Cael. 25. 61)
    • what will become of him: quid illo fiet?
    • I console myself with..: hoc (illo) solacio me consōlor
    • the memory of this will never fade from my mind: numquam ex animo meo memoria illius rei discedet
    • for a Roman he is decidedly well educated: sunt in illo, ut in homine Romano, multae litterae (De Sen. 4. 12)
    • those views are out of date: illae sententiae evanuerunt
    • those ideas have long ago been given up: illae sententiae iam pridem explosae et eiectae sunt (Fin. 5. 8. 23)
    • Solon, one of the seven sages: Solo, unus de septem (illis)
    • he possesses sound judgment in matters of taste: elegantia in illo est
    • there is a flavour of Atticism about his discourse: ex illius orationibus ipsae Athenae redolent
    • that Greek proverb contains an excellent lesson: bene illo Graecorum proverbio praecipitur
    • my relations with him are most hospitable: mihi cum illo hospitium est, intercedit
    • the aristocracy (as a party in politics): boni cives, optimi, optimates, also simply boni (opp. improbi); illi, qui optimatium causam agunt
    • this much he said: haec (quidem) ille
    • this passage is obscure: hic (ille) locus obscurus est
    • (ambiguous) I console myself with..: haec (illa) res me consolatur
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas Platonis commenticia
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas, quam Plato finxit
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse illr.


ille (indeclinable, comparative verre, indefinite superlative verst, definite superlative verste)

  1. bad

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse illa.


  • (Fredrikstad dialect) IPA(key): [ˈɪ̂l̺.l̺ɛ̝]



  1. badly
  2. (Fredrikstad dialect) very
    ille bra
    very good

Derived terms[edit]




(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.) Compare Turkish elli, Bashkir илле (ille)


ille (Cyrillic spelling илле)

  1. fifty