quisquis

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Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Doubling of quis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

quisquis m, f (indefinite, neuter quidquid or quicquid)

  1. whoever, whatever

Inflection[edit]

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Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative quisquis quidquid, quicquid quīquī quaequae
genitive cuiuscuius, cujuscujus quōrumquōrum quārumquārum quōrumquōrum
dative cuicui quibusquibus
accusative quemquem quamquam quidquid, quicquid quōsquōs quāsquās quaequae
ablative quōquō quāquā quōquō quibusquibus
vocative quisquis quidquid, quicquid quīquī quaequae

Usage notes[edit]

  • This pronoun is rarely used outside the nominative, accusative and vocative cases. For such instances, quis is usually employed.
  • Scaevola with a text out of a testament is cited with the neuter plural quaequae, and Ulpianus is cited with the accusative plural quōsquōs.[1]
  • Titus Livius is cited with dative or ablative plural quibusquibus in ab urbe condita book 41.[2][3] However, this depends on edition as it is: "liberos suos quibusquibus Romanis in eam condicionem",[4] or "liberos suos quibuslibet Romanis in eam condicionem".[5]
  • Cicero's pro P. Sestio is sometimes cited with the form quiqui,[3] but this does also depend on edition.[6] F. Neue stated, that quiqui appears in some editions of Cicero's pro P. Sestio, but not in manuscripts.[7]
  • Plautus, Aulularia, actus IV is sometimes given as a references for a nominative singular quīquī.[8] The text however does depend on the edition.[9]
  • Dictionaries and old grammars mention an adjectivally used feminine nominative *quaequae and a neuter *quodquod (or *quocquod). These forms however are unattested, while quisquis and quidquid (or quicquid) are used adjectivally too.[10][11]

Citations[edit]

  • Plautus, Cistellaria, actus II. In: Plautus with an English translation by Paul Nixon, vol. II of five volumes, 1917, p. 162f.:
    Conteris in tua me oratione, mulier, quisquis es.
    You wear me out with your prating, woman, whoever you are.
  • Plautus, Menaechmi, actus V. In: Plautus with an English translation by Paul Nixon, vol. II of five volumes, 1917, p. 446f.:
    Quisquis es, quidquid tibi nomen est, senex, summum Iovem deosque do testes—
    Whoever you are, whatever your name is, old gentleman, I call Heaven and God on high to witness—
  • Publius Vergilius Maro, Aeneïs, book 10. In: Vergil's Gedichte. Erklärt von Th. Ladewig. Drittes Bändchen: Aeneide Buch VII–XII. Sechste Auflage. Von Carl Schaper. Berlin, 1875, p. 156:
    • quisquis honos tumuli, quidquid solamen humandi est, largior.
  • M. Porcius Cato, De re rustica, caput XLIX; in: M. Porcii Catonis quae supersunt opera — Opere di M. Porcio Catone con traduzione e note, Venice, 1846, p. 51:
    Suum quidquid genus talearum serito.
  • Tacitus. In: Cornelius Tacitus. Erklärt von Karl Nipperdey. Erster Band. Ab excessu divi augusti I–VI. Leipzig, 1851, p. 265; 5th edition, Berlin, 1871, p. 329:
    Quod maxime exitiabile tulere illa tempora, cum primores senatus infimas etiam delationes exercerent, alii propalam, multi per occultum; neque discerneres alienos a coniunctis, amicos ab ignotis, quid repens aut vetustate obscurum: perinde in foro, in convivio, quaqua de re locuti incusabantur, ut quis praevenire et reum destinare properat, pars ad subsidium sui, plures infecti quasi valetudine et contactu.
    It was, indeed, the most deadly blight of the age that prominent senators practised even the basest forms of delation, some with perfect openness, and many in private. Nor could any distinction be traced between alien and relative, between friend and stranger, between the events of today and those of the dim past. Alike in the Forum or at a dinner-party, to speak of any subject was to be accused: for every man was hastening to be first in the field and to mark down his victim, occasionally in self-defence, generally through infection with what seemed a contagious disease. [12]
  • Plautus, Casina, actus III. In: Plautus with an English translation by Paul Nixon, vol. II of five volumes, 1917, p. f.:
    Oh, nimium scite scitus es. sed facitodum merula1 per vorsus quod cantad tu colas: "cum cibo cum quiqui" facito ut veniant, quasi eant Sutrium.
    1 per versus quod Festus: per vorsus quos BVE: cum cibo cum quiqui MSS.: tu Lindsay.
    Oh, you extraordinary, extraordinary man! But see that you follow what the blackbird sings in its stave: see that they come "with food, or no matter what," as if they were marching to Sutrium.1
    1 A hurried march to Sutrium had been an event in a war with the Gauls.
  • Plautus, Menaechmi, actus V. In: Plautus with an English translation by Paul Nixon, vol. II of five volumes, 1917, p. 486f.:
    venibunt quiqui licebunt, praesenti pecunia.
    • For sale ... your own price ... cash down!
    • All will go for whatever they'll fetch at ready money prices. [13]
  • Plautus, Poenulus, actus III. In: Plautus with an English translation by Paul Nixon, vol. IV of five volumes, 1930, p. 54f.:
    sed tamen cum eo cum quiqui, quamquam sumus pauperculi,
    est domi quod edimus, ne nos tam contemptim conteras.
    But in any case, however, even though we are poor folks, we do have food of our own, so you needn't treat us as trash to trample on.

References[edit]

  • quisquis in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • quisquis in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • quisquis” in Félix Gaffiot’s Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934)
  • Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for schools and colleges founded on comparative grammar, edited by J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, A. A. Howard and Benj. L. D'Ooge, 1903, p. 69:
    "In quisquis whoever, both parts are declined, but the only forms in common use are quisquis, quidquid (quicquid) and quōquō.
    Note 1.–Rare forms are quemquem and quibisquibus; an ablative quīquī is sometimes found in early Latin; the ablative feminine quāquā is both late and rare. Cuicui occurs as a genitive in the phrase cuicui modī, of whatever kind. Other cases are cited, but have no authority. In early Latin quisquis is occasionally feminine.
    Note 2.–Quisquis is usually substantive, except in the ablative quōquō, which is more commonly an adjective."
  1. ^ Friedrich Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 2nd part, 2nd edition, Berlin, 1875, p. 248: "Quaequae als Neutr. Scäv. Dig. 34, 3, 28 § 1 aus einem Testament: Quibusque legata in eo testamento quod incideram dedi, omnia rata esse et quaequae scripta sunt volo;" and "Ut in dote essent fructus quosquos percepisset Ulpian. Dig. 23, 4, 4"
  2. ^ Friedrich Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 2nd part, 2nd edition, Berlin, 1875, p. 245: "quibusquibus Liv. 41, 8, 10"
  3. 3.0 3.1 quisquis in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  4. ^ Titi Livi ab urbe condita libri. Erklärt von W. Weissenborn, vol. 9, containing Livius' book XXXIV–XXXXII, Berlin, 1864, p. 230f.
  5. ^ T. Livius: Römische Geschichte. Buch XXXIX-XLI. Lateinisch und deutsch herausgegeben von Hans Jürgen Hillen. 3rd edition, 2007, p. 272
  6. ^ The texts of some editions:
    • M. T. Ciceronis orationes pro Publio Sextio et pro lege manilia. Für Schulen bearbeitet von Joh. Karl Wilhelm Lotzbeck, Baireuth, 1829, p. 58:
      Esto igitur, ut hi sint, quam tu nationem appellasti, qui et integri sunt, et sani, et bene de rebus domesticis constituti.
    • Oeuvres complètes de Cicéron, avec la traduction en français, publiées sous la direction, de M. Nisard. Tome Troisième, Paris, 1840, p. 82:
      Esto igitur, ut hi sint, quam tu nationem appellasti, quiqui integri sunt, et sani, et bene de rebus domesticis constituti.
    • Marcus Tullius Cicero: Die politischen Reden. Band II. Lateinisch–deutsch, edited, translated and explained by Manfred Fuhrmann, 1993, p. 224:
      Est igitur ut ii sint, quam tu "nationem" appellasti, qui et integri sunt et sani et bene de rebus domesticis constituti.
  7. ^ Friedrich Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 2nd part, 2nd edition, Berlin, 1875, p. 248: "f. Sest. 45, 97 ist quiqui integri sunt in einigen Ausg. [= Ausgaben], aber in keiner Hdschr. [= Handschrift.]"
  8. ^ quiqui in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  9. ^ The texts of some editions are:
    • M. Acci Plauti aulularia, edited by Franc. Goeller, 1825, p. 35:
      neque partém tibi
      Ab eo, quiqui est, indipisces; néque furem excipiés?
    • M. Accii Plauti comoediae, edited by J. F. Gronovius, vol. I., London, 1829, p. 310:
      "neque partem tibi
      Ab eo, quiqui est, inde posces: neque furem excipies?"
      Tibi ab eo quoi sit indipisces B. 1. Tibi ab eo cuique est inde pasces B. 2. cui sit indipisces Pl. 1. a m. sec. Hl. 1. cuiquam est inde posces Pl. 1. a m. pr. cuicumque est Pl. 5. cuiquam est dinipisces Lgg. Pll. 2. 6. 5. C. Nonius p. 556. 59. citat, Nec partem tibi adeo cui sit indipisces, neque furum excipies; at p. 651. 21. Neque partem ab eo, qui qui est, inde posces, neque furem excipias. Vet. quoque ed. Meurs. H. M. G. indipisces. Mss. aliquot Nonii, inde posces. C. et Pl. a m. pr. expies.
      NOTAE
      Inde posces] Alii indipisces.
    • Plautus with an English translation by Paul Nixon, vol. I of four volumes, 1916, p. 314f. (note: on p. v the author is named Titus Maccius Plautus):
      "Neque partem tibi ab eo qui habet indipisces neque furem excipies?"
      And you won't go shares with the man that has it, or shield the thief?
  10. ^ Albert Harkness, Practical Introduction to Latin composition for schools and colleges, New York, 1876, p. 305: "Whatever. Quisquis, quaequae, quodquod and quicquid or quidquid.
  11. ^ Friedrich Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 2nd part, 2nd edition, Berlin, 1875, p. 241: "Aber quisquis auch adjectivisch in quisquis color Verg. Ge. 2, 256 im Pal., im Med. und Bern. b c m sec. und bei Serv., und Horat. Serm. 2, 1, 60, quisquis honos Verg. Aen. 10, 493, quisquis erit ventus Plin. H. N. 18, 34, 77, 339."; p. 242: "Zu quisquam und quisquis ist nur das Neutr. quicquam oder quidquam und quicquid oder quidquid nachzuweisen" and "suum quidquid genus talearum Cato R. R. 48, 1, quidquid solamen humandi est Verg. Aen. 10, 493, und quidquid est nomen Plaut. bei Serv. zu dieser Stelle, ferner Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 60 und Pseud. 2, 2, 44, Gell. 4, 1, 4"
  12. ^ The Annals of Tacitus, Book VI (beginning)
  13. ^ Henry Thomas Riley, The Comedies of Plautus literally translated into English prose, with notes, vol. I. of two volumes, London, 1869, p. 372