- Plural form of -um
From Proto-Baltic *-umas, possibly from an earlier suffix *-ma(s) added to a u-stem (e.g., Lithuanian saugùs (“safe, sure”), saugù-mas), from which the u was reinterpreted as part of the suffix and then extended to other stems. Cognate with Lithuanian -umas.
- Added to adjectives to form nouns indicating a state of being, similar to (and frequently corresponding to) English -ness, -ence, -tion.
- Added to verbs to form nouns indicating an object produced by the action described by the verb.