kuka

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: kúka, kūka, кука, and куќа

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *ku (from Proto-Uralic *ku- ~ *ko-) +‎ -ka. Cognate with Estonian kumb (which), Erzya ко- (ko-) in Erzya кода (koda, how), Hungarian hol (where), Forest Enets hōke (which one), Nganasan kuninu (where), and Kamassian kāmǝ̑n (if). Might further be related to Proto-Indo-European *kʷi- ~ *kʷe- ~ *kʷo-, whence the English interrogatives English what, where, who, how derive.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈkukɑ/, [ˈkukɑ]
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -ukɑ
  • Syllabification: ku‧ka

Pronoun[edit]

kuka

  1. (interrogative) who; (when followed by a modifier in elative case, -sta/-stä) which one (of + a noun referring to people).
  2. (indefinite) whoever.
  3. (relative) who, when the pronoun refers to the whole of the preceding sentence. [1]
    En tiedä, kuka sen teki.
    I don't know who did it.
    but:
    Tässä on mies, joka sen teki.
    This is the man who did it.
  4. (relative, dialectal) who

Usage notes[edit]

  • The singular forms are sometimes used colloquially instead of the actual plural forms. Ketä is particularly common for keitä. In some dialects ketä is used in place of kuka.
  • The use of kuka as a relative pronoun is comparable to mikä; see it for more usage notes for when to use it and when to use joka.

Inflection[edit]

In modern Finnish, forms based on the stem form ke- or kene- are the usual inflected forms of the interrogative personal pronoun. Inflected forms based on the stem ku- are now archaic and somewhat poetic, even though the nominative singular kuka is modern. Conversely, the alternative nominative form ken is now archaic or poetic.

Thus, Kuta sinä rakastat?, while standard, would to a modern speaker appear roughly as archaic as "Whom dost thou love?"

The illative, adessive, ablative and allative singular cases have alternative forms of equal value; both forms are commonly used. Thus, keneen, kenellä, keneltä, kenelle can equally be expressed as kehen, kellä, keltä, kelle.

Following the pattern of other personal pronouns, the accusative form is kenet (compare minut, sinut, etc.).

Some cases of kuka/ken are hardly used at all. The inflection table below shows the archaic or otherwise disappeared/disappearing forms in brackets.

The instructive plural kuin with the stem -ka*, the instructive singular kun* and the causative singular kuten* (also as the dated, archaic form: kutenka*) are used as adverbs with completely different meanings from “who”.

Note: In the inflection table below, poetic and/or archaic forms are shown in brackets and modern usage without brackets. See also the declension of the negative form ei kukaan.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (who): ken ( the nominative singular is archaic, see "Inflection" section above)
  • (whoever): kuka tahansa, ken

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Origin uncertain; perhaps an Italian loan word, compare Northern Italian cuco (goofy).

Adjective[edit]

kuka

  1. dumb (as a fish), tongue-tied (not saying a word)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Via Czech, from German KUKA, short for Keller und Knappich Augsburg, a German firm which manufactured and supplied orange refuse collection vehicles. Today the company KUKA produces industrial robots and automation technologies.

Noun[edit]

kuka (plural kukák)

  1. garbage can, trash can, refuse bin (especially an outdoor container)
    Coordinate terms: szemetes, szemetesvödör, szemétkosár, szemetesláda, szemétláda
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative kuka kukák
accusative kukát kukákat
dative kukának kukáknak
instrumental kukával kukákkal
causal-final kukáért kukákért
translative kukává kukákká
terminative kukáig kukákig
essive-formal kukaként kukákként
essive-modal
inessive kukában kukákban
superessive kukán kukákon
adessive kukánál kukáknál
illative kukába kukákba
sublative kukára kukákra
allative kukához kukákhoz
elative kukából kukákból
delative kukáról kukákról
ablative kukától kukáktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
kukáé kukáké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
kukáéi kukákéi
Possessive forms of kuka
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. kukám kukáim
2nd person sing. kukád kukáid
3rd person sing. kukája kukái
1st person plural kukánk kukáink
2nd person plural kukátok kukáitok
3rd person plural kukájuk kukáik

Further reading[edit]

  • (dumb): kuka in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (garbage can): kuka in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (wooden hook used for drying tobacco): kuka in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kuka, from Proto-Uralic *ku-. Cognates with Finnish kuka.

The inflected forms derive from Proto-Finnic *ku.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

kuka

  1. which? (of many)

Declension[edit]

Declension of kuka
singular plural
nominative kuka kut
genitive kunen
partitive kuta
illative kuhu
inessive kus
elative kust
allative kulle
adessive kul
ablative kult
translative kuks
essive kunenna
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
Chernyavskij's declension of kuka
singular plural
nominative kuka kukat
genitive kukan kukan
partitive kukkaa kukkaa
illative kuhu kuhu
inessive kuss kuss
elative kust kust
allative kulle kulle
adessive kull kull
ablative kult kult
translative kuks kuks
essive kukkaan kukkaan
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)

References[edit]

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 212
  • Vitalij Chernyavskij (2005) Ižoran keel (Ittseopastaja)[1], page 22

Pitjantjatjara[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kuka

  1. edible animal
  2. meat

Derived terms[edit]


Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

kuka

  1. third-person singular present of kukać

Quechua[edit]

Noun[edit]

kuka

  1. coca

Declension[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *kuka (hook, hook-shaped).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kûka/
  • Hyphenation: ku‧ka

Noun[edit]

kȕka f (Cyrillic spelling ку̏ка)

  1. hook

Declension[edit]

Noun[edit]

kuka (Cyrillic spelling кука)

  1. genitive singular of kuk

References[edit]

  • kuka” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Tok Pisin[edit]

Noun[edit]

kuka

  1. crab

Tokelauan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English cook.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈku.ka/
  • Hyphenation: ku‧ka

Noun[edit]

kuka

  1. cook, chef
  2. cooked food

Verb[edit]

kuka

  1. (transitive) to cook

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. Simona, editor (1986) Tokelau Dictionary[2], Auckland: Office of Tokelau Affairs, page 168

Yosondúa Mixtec[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

kuka

  1. comb

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Beaty de Farris, Kathryn; et al. (2012) Diccionario básico del mixteco de Yosondúa, Oaxaca (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 46)‎[3] (in Spanish), third edition, Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., page 40