-mme

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See also: Mme and mme

Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: -m‧me
The first M is in the penultimate syllable of the verb forms, e.g. o·lem·me.
The first M is in the last syllable of the actual word, e.g. yh·ti·öm·me.
  • Pronounced as written. The first syllables of Finnish words are always stressed, so no emphasis on this.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-kme, from *-k (marker for the present tense) + *-me (etymologically identical to me, the first-person plural personal pronoun). In the past tense, there was originally -i- in place of -k- (*-ime) but the present suffix has been generalized to all tenses and moods.

Suffix[edit]

-mme

  1. (personal) Forms the first-person plural of verbs.
    Me olemme lääkäreitä.
    We are doctors.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the same stem that the first person singular has both in the present and the past tense, and in all moods.
  • Colloquially, the indefinite person is used instead of the actual first person plural. See -an and -in.

Etymology 2[edit]

From earlier *-nmek, *-nmen, from Proto-Uralic dual suffix *-n + *me (first-person plural pronoun) + dual suffix *-n or plural suffix *-k.

Suffix[edit]

-mme (appended to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with or without meidän (the genitive of the personal pronoun me), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun our
    (meidän) kirjamme
    our book
  2. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without meidän (the genitive of the personal pronoun me), us
    (meidän) edessämme = in front of us
    (meidän) takanamme = behind us
  3. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "we"; appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause
    Sanoimme tekevämme läksyjämme.
    We said that we were doing our homework.
    (similar to the Latin structure accusativus cum infinitivo, e.g. "se dicit facere")
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "we"; appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause
    Väitimme tehneemme läksyjämme.
    We claimed to have been doing our homework.
  5. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "we", appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive
    Tehdessämme läksyjämme (me) kuulimme laukauksen ulkoa.
    (While) doing our homework, we heard a shot from outside.
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "we", appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular
    Tehtyämme läksymme (me) kuulimme laukauksen ulkoa.
    (After) having done / After doing our homework, we heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "we", appended to the long first infinitive
    Tehdäksemme läksymme hyvin (me) menimme hiljaiseen huoneeseen.
    (In order) to do our homework well, we went into a quiet room.
  8. (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "we".
    Olemme hyvin pahoillamme siitä.
    We are very sorry about it.
  9. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "we".
    Kävelimme kirjoinemme ovesta ulos.
    We walked with our books out the door.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The possessive suffix -mme is compulsory in standard Finnish. In standard Finnish, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun "me" before the main word can be omitted. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -mme is very rare and only the genitive form "meidän" (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
  • The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to standard Finnish, not to spoken Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]