-nsä

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See also: nsa, NSA, and -nsa

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

See -nsa.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /nsæˣ/, [ns̠æ(ʔ)]

Suffix[edit]

-nsä (appended to a word that includes ä, ö or y or i or e alone and to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with hänen (the genitive of the personal pronoun hän) or heidän (the genitive of the personal pronoun he), corresponds to the English possessive pronouns his, her; their (only of people); in some cases its (see the usage notes below)
    hänen yhtiönsä (yht > + -nsä, not -nsa)
    his/her company (meaning a corporation)
    hänen äänensä: (ääni > + -nsä)
    his/her voice
    hänen kirjeensä: (kirje > + -nsä)
    his/her letter (meaning a written message)
    heidän kirjeensä
    their letter
  2. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that includes front vowels and that is after hänen (the genitive of the personal pronoun hän), him, her; them (only of people)
    hänen edessänsä = in front of him/her
    heidän edessänsä = in front of them
  3. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people); appended to the active present participle in genitive singular (that includes front vowels) when the action is concurrent with the main clause
    Hän sanoi tekevänsä läksyjänsä. (having front vowels (here Äs), the verb tehdä, turned into tekevän, requires -nsä)
    He said that he was doing his homework. (similar to the Latin structure accusativus cum infinitivo, e.g. "se dicit facere")
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people); appended to the active past participle in genitive singular (that includes front vowels) when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause
    He väittivät tehneensä läksynsä.
    They claimed to have been doing their homework.
  5. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people), appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive (that includes front vowels).
    Tehdessänsä läksyjänsä hän kuuli laukauksen ulkoa. (also the shorter form Tehdessään accepted — see the usage notes below)
    (While) doing her homework, she heard a shot from outside.
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people), appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular (that includes front vowels).
    Tehtyänsä läksynsä he kuulivat laukauksen ulkoa. (also the shorter form Tehtyään accepted — see the usage notes below)
    (After) having done / After doing their homework, they heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people), appended to the long first infinitive (that includes front vowels).
    Tehdäksensä läksynsä hyvin hän meni hiljaiseen huoneeseen. (also the shorter form Tehdäkseen accepted — see the usage notes below)
    (In order) to do his homework well, he went into a quiet room.
  8. (possessive) Used in some adverbs that include front vowels, when the clause has the subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people).
    He olivat hyvin häpeissänsä häviöstä. (also the shorter form häpeissään accepted — see the usage notes below)
    They were very ashamed of the defeat.
  9. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case (that includes front vowels) when the clause has the subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people).
    Hän käveli kirjeinensä ovesta ulos. (also the shorter form kirjeineen accepted — see the usage notes below)
    S/he walked with his/her letters out the door.

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]