-nsa

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See also: nsa, NSA, and -nsä

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uralic *-nsak, originally the third-person plural possessive for plural nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /nsɑˣ/, [ns̠ɑ(ʔ)]

Suffix[edit]

-nsa (appended to a word that includes a, o or u or i or e with a, o, u; to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with hänen (the genitive of the personal pronoun hän) or heidän (the genitive of the personal pronoun he), corresponds to the English possessive pronouns his, her; their (only of people); in some cases its (see the usage notes below)
    hänen kirjansa: (kirja > + -nsa, not -nsä)
    his/her book
    heidän kirjansa
    their book
  2. (possessive) Third person reflexive possessive suffix.
    Kalle luki kirjansa.
    Kalle read his (own) book.
  3. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that includes back vowels (a, o, u) and that is after hänen (the genitive of the personal pronoun hän) or heidän (the genitive of the personal pronoun he), him, her; them (only of people)
    hänen takanansa = behind him/her (also the shorter form takanaan accepted — see the usage notes below)
    heidän takanansa = behind them (-"- takanaan -"-)
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people); appended to the active present participle in genitive singular (that includes back vowels) when the action is concurrent with the main clause
    He sanoivat saavansa rahaa. (having back vowels (here As), the verb saada, turned into saavan, requires -nsa)
    They said that they were receiving money. (similar to the Latin structure accusativus cum infinitivo, e.g. "se dicit facere")
  5. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing e.g. telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people); appended to the active past participle in genitive singular (that includes back vowels) when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause
    Hän väitti saaneensa rahaa.
    She claimed to have received money.
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people), appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive (that includes back vowels).
    Saadessansa rahaa hän kuuli laukauksen ulkoa. (also the shorter form Saadessaan accepted — see the usage notes below)
    (While) receiving money, he heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people), appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular (that includes back vowels).
    Saatuansa rahaa hän kuuli laukauksen ulkoa. (also the shorter form Saatuaan accepted — see the usage notes below)
    (After) having received / After receiving money, she heard a shot from outside.
  8. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people), appended to the long first infinitive (that includes back vowels).
    Saadaksensa enemmän rahaa he vaihtoivat työpaikkaa. (also the shorter form Saadakseen accepted — see the usage notes below)
    (In order) to get more money, they changed their job.
  9. (possessive) Used in some adverbs that include back vowels, when the clause has the subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people).
    Hän oli hyvin pahoillansa siitä. (also the shorter form pahoillaan accepted — see the usage notes below)
    S/he was very sorry about it.
  10. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case (that includes back vowels) when the clause has the subject "he", "she" or "they" (only of people).
    Hän käveli kirjoinensa ovesta ulos. (also the shorter form kirjoineen accepted — see the usage notes below)
    S/he walked with his/her books out the door.

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]