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See also: vn, VN, .vn, and Vn.



Etymology 1[edit]

From -hVn where the -h- has been elided between unstressed short vowels.


-Vn (V corresponds to the preceding vowel)

  1. Forms the illative singular case.
Alternative forms[edit]

Depending on the preceding vowel (i.e. lengthens the preceding vowel): -an, -en, -in, -on, -un, -yn, -än, -ön

Usage notes[edit]

Used after an unstressed short vowel. The vowel is the same as the final vowel in the stem, thus producing a long vowel. The variant form after monosyllables and disyllables with final long vowel is -hVn.

word (strong) vowel stem illative
jalka jalka- jalkaan
miniä miniä- miniään
oikea oikea- oikeaan
tuli tule- tuleen
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-hen.


-Vn (V corresponds to the preceding vowel)

  1. The shorter third-person possessive suffix.
Alternative forms[edit]

Depending on the previous vowel: -an, -en, -än.

Usage notes[edit]

Can always be replaced with -nsa, the longer third-person possessive suffix, but not the other way around. Specifically, -Vn can be used:

  • generally: when the vowel preceding -nsa is a short a, ä and e
  • for nominal inflections (including participles and adverbs derived from such), all cases except nominative, genitive, illative or instructive
  • for verbal inflections, the long 1st infinitive, the 2nd infinitive, and the 5th infinitive
See also[edit]