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See also: kin, Kin, kín, kīn, kin-, k'in, and -kin-


Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -kin, -kinne, -kunne, from Old English cynna, the genitive plural of cynn (kind, sort, rank), used in compounds.



  1. (now chiefly dialectal) Used to form adjectives expressing resemblance or likeness to, similar to -like.
  2. A suffix used to form nouns having qualities of or belonging to a particular kind, class, or sort.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -kin, -ken (also as -ke, -k), perhaps from Old English -ca, -ce, but more likely from Middle Dutch -ken (compare cognate Middle English -chen, -chin, from Old English -ċen, -ċen), apparently representing Proto-Germanic *-ikīną, *-ukīną, a double diminutive, from *-ikaz, *-ukaz (> Old English -oc) + *-īną (compare Old English -en). Cognate with Dutch -ken, Low German -ken, German -chen, Old English -ċen. More at -ock, -en.



  1. (now archaic) Forming diminutives of nouns.
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  1. Alternative form of -gin

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From Proto-Finnic *-kik. Cognate to Estonian -gi, Votic -tši and Erzya -ке (-ke) in секе (seke, the same), неке (neke, the same (plural)). Final -n is analogous with -kaan.



  1. (enclitic, appended to any other word than a verb) also, too
    Minäkin söin tänään jäätelöä.
    Also I ate ice-cream today. (I wasn't the only one who ate it.)
    (Minä) söin tänäänkin jäätelöä.
    I ate ice-cream also today. (I also ate it on other days.)
    (Minä) söin tänään jäätelöäkin.
    I ate also ice-cream today. (I also ate other things.)
  2. (enclitic, appended to a verb) though, anyway, still, nonetheless, nevertheless; often not translated at all, used to underline an action
    Minulla ei ole nälkä, mutta söinkin juuri jäätelöä.
    I'm not hungry, but I did just eat some ice cream.
    Minulla ei pitänyt olla nälkä, mutta söinkin juuri jäätelöä.
    I wasn't supposed to be hungry, but I just ate some ice cream anyway.
    Minun piti mennä kauppaan, mutta meninkin kapakkaan.
    I was supposed to go to the store, but I went to the bar instead.
    "Kuinka sait tavarat ulos kaupasta? Eihän sinulla ollut rahaa!" "Minä maksoinkin luottokortilla."
    "How did you get the items out of the store? You didn't have any money, did you?" "[Well,] I paid with a credit card."
    Bussi tulikin taas myöhässä.
    The bus came late again (as always).
    Vaikka osasinkin jo suurimman osan opetetuista asioista, kurssi oli silti kiinnostava.
    Even though I already knew most of the things taught, the course was still interesting.
  3. at that (in addition to what has been said; furthermore; moreover)
    Hän meni kuuluisaan kouluun ja hyvään menikin.
    He went to a famous school, and a good one at that.
  4. even (implying extreme example)
    Minäkin osaisin tehdä tämän!
    Even I know how to do this!
  5. -ever (when used with a verb that has an interrogative pronoun, often with ikinä for emphasis)
    Kuka ikinä onkin, hän yrittää vain saada huomiosi.
    Whoever that person is, they are just trying to get your attention.
  6. Used to form rhetorical questions or questions for which the speaker is seeking to have their opinion confirmed.
    Eikö olekin kaunis?
    Isn't it beautiful?



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