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See also: kin, Kin, kín, kīn, kin-, k'in, and -kin-


Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -kin, -kinne, -kunne, from Old English cynna, the genitive plural of cynn (kind, sort, rank), used in compounds.



  1. (now chiefly dialectal) Used to form adjectives expressing resemblance or likeness to, similar to -like.
  2. A suffix used to form nouns having qualities of or belonging to a particular kind, class, or sort.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -kin, -ken (also as -ke, -k), perhaps from Old English -ca, -ce, but more likely from Middle Dutch -ken (compare cognate Middle English -chen, -chin, from Old English -ċen), apparently representing Proto-West Germanic *-ikīn, *-ukīn, a double diminutive, from *-ik, *-uk (> Old English -oc) + *-īn (compare Old English -en). Cognate with Dutch -ken, Low German -ken, German -chen, Old English -ċen. More at -ock, -en.



  1. (now archaic) Forming diminutives of nouns.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]





  1. Alternative form of -gin (maker, doer)



From Proto-Finnic *-kik, from *-ka + suffix (possibly lative *-ik). Cognate to Estonian -gi, Votic -tši. The final -n is by analogy with -kaan.[1] In the eastern dialects, the weak form *-gik was historically standard, and variation is found in some lexicalized terms (e.g. jotain ~ jotakin). Probably also related to Erzya -ке (-ke) in секе (śeke, the same), неке (ńeke, the same (plural)).[2]


-kin (enclitic particle, chiefly in the positive)

  1. (appended to any other word than a verb) also, too
    Minäkin söin tänään jäätelöä.
    Also I ate ice-cream today. (I wasn't the only one who ate it.)
    (Minä) söin tänäänkin jäätelöä.
    I ate ice-cream also today. (I also ate it on other days.)
    (Minä) söin tänään jäätelöäkin.
    I ate also ice-cream today. (I also ate other things.)
  2. (appended to a verb) though, anyway, still, nonetheless, nevertheless; often not translated at all, used to underline an action
    Minulla ei ole nälkä, mutta söinkin juuri jäätelöä.
    I'm not hungry, but I did just eat some ice cream.
    Minulla ei pitänyt olla nälkä, mutta söinkin juuri jäätelöä.
    I wasn't supposed to be hungry, but I just ate some ice cream anyway.
    Minun piti mennä kauppaan, mutta meninkin kapakkaan.
    I was supposed to go to the store, but I went to the bar instead.
    "Kuinka sait tavarat ulos kaupasta? Eihän sinulla ollut rahaa!" "Minä maksoinkin luottokortilla."
    "How did you get the items out of the store? You didn't have any money, did you?" "[Well,] I paid with a credit card."
    Bussi tulikin taas myöhässä.
    The bus came late again (as always).
    Vaikka osasinkin jo suurimman osan opetetuista asioista, kurssi oli silti kiinnostava.
    Even though I already knew most of the things taught, the course was still interesting.
  3. at that (in addition to what has been said; furthermore; moreover)
    Hän meni kuuluisaan kouluun ja hyvään menikin.
    He went to a famous school, and a good one at that.
  4. even (implying extreme example)
    Minäkin osaisin tehdä tämän!
    Even I know how to do this!
  5. -ever (when used with a verb that has an interrogative pronoun, often with ikinä for emphasis)
    Kuka ikinä onkin, hän yrittää vain saada huomiosi.
    Whoever that person is, they are just trying to get your attention.
  6. Used to form rhetorical questions or questions for which the speaker is seeking to have their opinion confirmed.
    Eikö olekin kaunis?
    Isn't it beautiful?

Usage notes[edit]

positive -kin
negative -kaan



See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.
  2. ^ Erina Olga. Particles in the Mordvin Languages (1997), p. 37


preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
default -gın -gin -gun -gün
assimilated -kın -kin -kun -kün




  1. Assimilated form of -gın after the vowels E / İ.
    diz- (to arrange in a row) + ‎-gin → ‎dizgin (rein)
    sal- (to let loose, to let go) + ‎-gın → ‎salgın (outbreak, epidemic)
    dur- (to stop) + ‎-gun → ‎durgun (still, calm)
    ol- (to be, to become) + ‎-gun → ‎olgun (ripe)