-pa

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Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to the locative suffix -pan.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-pa

  1. times; forms adverbial numerals.
    • 1571: Alonso de Molina, Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana y mexicana y castellana, f. 120v.
      ¶Para dezir vna vez, foz vezes, tres vezes . &c. dizen deſta manera. / ¶Vnavez. ceppa. / Dosvezes. oppa. / Tres vezes. yexpa. / […] / ¶Y aſsi de todos los otros numeros menores y / mayores, poniendo alcabo eſta ſyllaba,pa.
      To say once, twice, thrice, etc. they say in the following manner: Once. ceppa. / Twice. oppa. / Thrice. yexpa. / […] / And so on for all the other numbers, lesser and greater, placing at the end this syllable: pa.
    ēyi (three)ēxpa (thrice)
    mācuilli (five)mācuilpa (five times)
    chicōme (seven)chicōppa (seven times)

Usage notes[edit]

The consonantal sound of the syllable of the base numeral adjacent to -pa undergoes regressive assimilation (where a consonantal sound assimilates into the one that follows it) in some situations:

  • -m becomes p:
    (one) —(combining form cen-, and cem- before p and vowels) → ceppa (once)
    ōme (two) —(combining form ōn-, and ōm- before p and vowels) → ōppa (twice)
    chicōme (seven) —(derived from ōme) → chicōppa (seven times)
  • -uh becomes p:
    nāhui (four) —(combining form nāuh-) → nāppa (four times)
    chiucnāhui (nine) —(derived from nāhui) → chiucnāppa (nine times)

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Particle[edit]

-pa (front vowel harmony variant -pä)

  1. Expresses that the speaker is surprised at or astonished by something.
    • Tuollapa on paljon kukkia!
      • Ooh lots of flowers are there!
    • Oletpa sinä kaunis!
      • How beautiful you are!
    • Täällä on paljon kukkia!
      • Ooh lots of flowers are here!
  2. please, kindly (appended to an imperative verb form in order to soften the command or request)
    • Korjaapa lautaset pois pöydästä.
      • Please, clear the plates off the table.
    • Tee nämä tehtävät.
      • Kindly do these tasks.
  3. if you like (used in giving a non-concrete instruction)
    Mutta kuvittelepa maailma, jossa ei olisi ilmastonmuutosta.
    But imagine, if you like, a world where climate change did not exist.
  4. Expresses that the speaker is proud of something, also to boast or brag about something.
  5. When appended to a second-person imperative with the particle -s, gives the command or request a slightly more persuasive or inspiring tone.
    • Laitapas lautaset pöytään.
      • Hey, go put the plates on the table.
    • Siistis huoneesi.
      • Hey, go straighten up your room.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (when surprised or astonished; when proud or boasting): By changing the tone of voice, the sentences can be turned into ironic statements.
  • As seen above, this particle is used in subjective impressions or opinions or to soften commands and thus it is used especially in spoken language. It can, depending on the context, have several meanings that, in English, can usually be expressed only by accentuating the words differently or by adding extra words.
  • Note also that this particle is always appended to the first or the second word of the clause.
  • In everyday speech, this particle is used quite often even when there is no intention to give the message a nuance, in other words, the particle often does not affect the message in everyday speech.
Synonyms[edit]
  • (when surprised at something, stronger than -pa) -han

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Originally the strong grade of the present active participle suffix -va.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-pa (front vowel harmony variant -pä)

  1. (rare) Forms adjectives or nouns of a very limited amount of verbs.
    käydä 'be suitable', stem *käy-käypä adj 'current, going; valid; popular; suitable, fitting'; literally 'that which/who is suitable'
    syödä 'eat', stem *syö-syöpä n 'cancer'; literally 'that which/who eats'
Usage notes[edit]
  • Historically, this suffix is the older form of the active present participle suffix -va/-vä after stressed syllables, though no longer used in that function. Some words have preserved the original suffix due to having changed their meaning. Therefore, e.g. käypä is originally the active present participle of käydä, which was later replaced by käyvä.

Quechua[edit]

Not to be confused with -paq, -pas, or -spa

Suffix[edit]

-pa

  1. Genitive marker following consonants. See also: -p
    qampa sutiyki ("your name")
  2. Indicates a repetitive action. Once more. See also: -paya
    qillqay (to write)qillqapay (to rewrite)
    waqtay (to beat)waqtapay (to beat into pieces)