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See also: kaan, Kaan, kāān̄, ka'an, and -kään



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-kaan (in words with back vowels a, o, u or i or e with a, o, u — compare -kään)

  1. (enclitic) neither, not ... either (also not)
    Jos sinä et korjaa sitä, minäkään en sitä tee.
    If you won’t correct it, neither will I.
  2. Used to emphasize lack of alternatives.
    Mitä muutakaan olisin voinut tehdä?
    What else could I have done?
  3. Used to soften a question.
    Kuka tämä herra olikaan?
    Who was this gentleman again?
  4. even; used to emphasize something
    En haluaisi tehdä sitä työtä päivääkään.
    I would not want to do that job for even one day.
    Ahtisaarikaan ei osaisi ratkaista tätä riitaa.
    Even Ahtisaari could not solve this dispute.
  5. Used to indicate change of mind or circumstances
    En matkustakaan Italiaan, vaan menen tervehtimään vanhaa äitiäni.
    Instead of travelling to Italy, I'll go to greet my elderly mother.
    Tänään ei satanutkaan, vaikka aamulla näytti synkältä.
    It didn't rain today after all, although the morning looked gloomy.

Usage notes[edit]

This particle can be appended to almost any word that hasn't got any previous enclitic particle, and sometimes also to such words that already have an enclitic particle. Note that the difference of the meaning or the message changes depending on which word -kaan is attached to:

Kaverinikaan ei juo huomenna kahvia. = Neither will my friend drink coffee tomorrow. (My friend will be one of those who won't drink coffee tomorrow)
Kaverini ei juokaan huomenna kahvia. = But my friend won't drink coffee tomorrow. (Contrary to what might be expected, my friend does not drink coffee tomorrow)
Kaverini ei juo huomennakaan kahvia. = My friend won't drink coffee tomorrow either. (As has happened before, my friend won't drink coffee tomorrow)
Kaverini ei juo huomenna kahviakaan. = Tomorrow my friend won't drink coffee either. (Coffee is one of the things my friend won't drink...) or Tomorrow my friend won't drink even a coffee. (Not even one cup)


  • (neither, not ... either) -kin

See also[edit]