From Middle English alkin, alkinnes (“of all kinds”) [and other forms], from Old English ealle cynn (“of all kinds”) [and other forms], from eall (“all”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂el- (“all; beyond; other”)) + cynn (“kind; family”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁- (“to beget, give birth; to produce”)). The English word is analysable as all + kin (“(obsolete) class (of animals, persons, or things) having common attributes, kind”). Compare Swedish allsköns, Danish alskens.
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈɔːlkɪn/
Audio (Southern England) (file)
- (General American) IPA(key): /ˈɔlkɪn/, /ˈɑl-/
- (Scotland) IPA(key): /ˈɔlkɪn/
- Hyphenation: al‧kin
alkin (not comparable)
- (obsolete except Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) Of all or every kind; all kinds or sorts of; intermingled and various.
- alkin crafty men
- craftsmen of every kind
- [c. 1370–1390, [William Langland], “[Prologue]”, in The Vision of Pierce Plowman [...] (in Middle English), London: […] Roberte Crowley, […], published 1550, OCLC 837479643, folio iiii, recto:
- [a. 1400? (transcribed c. 1440), James Orchard Halliwell, editor, Morte Arthure. The Alliterative Romance of the Death of King Arthur. Now First Printed from a Manuscript in Lincoln Cathedral. (in Middle English), Brixton Hill [London]: […] [C. and J. Adlard] for private circulation only, published 1847, OCLC 1118047966, lines 3244–3245, page 271:
- Enhorilde with arborye and alkyns trees, / Erberis fulle honeste, and byrdez there undyre; […]
- Surrounded with shrubbery and all kinds of trees, / Gardens ever so gorgeous, and birds beneath; […]]
- 1501, Gavin Douglas, “The Palice of Honour [The Palace of Honour]”, in John Small, editor, The Poetical Works of Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, […], volume I, Edinburgh: William Paterson; London: H. Sotheran & Co., published 1874, OCLC 1120176703, 3rd part, lines 16–19, page 54:
- I saw ane plane of peirles pulchritude, / Quhairin aboundit alkin things gude / Spyce, wine, corne, oyle, tre, frute, flour, herbis grene, / All foullis, beistis, birdis, and alkin fude.
- I saw a plain of peerless pulchritude, / Wherein abounded all kinds of things good / Spice, wine, corn, oil, tree, fruit, flower, herbs green, / All fowls, beasts, birds, and all kinds of food.
- c. 1528–1530, David Lindsay [i.e., David Lyndsay], “John Skelton and Sir David Lindsay, with Others.—a.d. 1500 to a.d. 1550. [Lindsay’s Complaint.]”, in Henry Morley, editor, Shorter English Poems […] (The Library of English Literature; part 1), London; Paris: Cassell & Company, published , OCLC 490526283, lines 290–299, pages 148–149:
- Alas, I have no time to tarry / To show you all the fery fary [footnote: bustle and confusion]; / How those that had the governance / Among themselves raised variance, / And who most to my scathe consentit / Within few yearis sore repentit, / When they could make me no remeid: / For they were hurlit out by the heid, / And others took the governing / Well worse than they in alkin thing.
- c. 1540 (date written), John Wedderburn; James Wedderburn; Robert Wedderburn, “Quam bonus Deus Israel [How Good is the God of Israel]. Psal[m] lxxiij.”, in David Laing, editor, A Compendious Book of Psalms and Spiritual Songs, Commonly Known as “The Gude and Godlie Ballates.” […], Edinburgh: W[illiam] Paterson, published 1868, OCLC 793584875, page 88:
- Throw quhilk thay ar exaltit in to pryde, / Thair violence and wrang walkis full wyde / Throw thair grit micht in alkin luſt they leif, / Quhat thay can think vnto thair hart thay geif.
- Through which they are exalted into pride, / Their violence and wrong walks full wide / Through their great might in all kinds of lust they live, / What they can think unto their heart they give.
- 1578, John Rolland, “The Fyft Taill of the Emprice [The Fifth Tale of the Empress]”, in The Seven Sages, in Scotish Metre, Edinburgh: The Bannatyne Club, published 1837, OCLC 752663180, page 156:
- The Emprice heiring ye child ᵹit was not deid / Ane new conſait than tuik ſcho in hir heid, / Throw all the toun gart fle in alkin artis / The carage hors yat wald draw wanis & cartis / And fillit the ſame with alkin kinde of geir, / Hir Ornamentis and clais that ſcho ſuld weir. / Maid hir to pas vnto hir Father hame, / Saying ſcho wald na langer thoill ſic ſchame.
- The Empress hearing the child yet was not dead / A new conceit then took she in her head, / Through all the town, [she] made flight in all directions / The carriage horse yet would draw wains and carts / And filled the same with all kinds of gear, / Her ornaments and clothes that she should wear. / Made her to pass unto her father's home, / Saying she would no longer thole [endure] such shame.
- “alkin, a.”, in The Dictionary of the Scots Language, Edinburgh: Scottish Language Dictionaries, 2004–, OCLC 57069714, reproduced from William A[lexander] Craigie, A[dam] J[ack] Aitken [et al.], editors, A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue: […], Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1931–2002, →OCLC.
- “ALKIN, phr. used attrib.” in Joseph Wright, editor, The English Dialect Dictionary: […], volume I (A–C), London: Published by Henry Frowde, […], publisher to the English Dialect Society, […]; New York, N.Y.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1898, →OCLC, page 38, column 1.
alkin m inan
- alkin in Polish dictionaries at PWN