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See also: oedd and ödd



According to Pedersen and Jackson, from both Proto-Celtic *-eyes (the nominative plural of masculine and feminine i-stems, from Proto-Indo-European *-eyes) and Proto-Celtic *-esa (the nominative/accusative plural of neuter s-stems, from Proto-Indo-European *-esh₂); for the development in the latter case compare oedd (was) from *esāt (Latin erat).[1][2]

According to Morris Jones, from both Proto-Celtic *-iyes (the same ending as Pedersen’s *-eyes) and *-iyoi (the nominative plural of masculine yo-stems) when the stress fell on the antepenult.[3]

According to Schrijver, from a Proto-Celtic *-es-ī that arose when certain neuter s-stems became masculine.[4]




  1. Pluralisation suffix
    Synonyms: -aid, -aint, -au, -ed, -edd, -en, -i, -iadau, -iaid, -iau, -ion, -od, -on, -ydd, -yr, -ys
    llyfrgell (library) + ‎-oedd → ‎llyfrgelloedd (libraries)
    cwm (valley) + ‎-oedd → ‎cymoedd (valleys)
    cant (hundred) + ‎-oedd → ‎cannoedd (hundreds)

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ Pedersen, Holger (1913) Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen (in German), volume II, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, →ISBN, pages 94–95
  2. ^ Kenneth H. Jackson, Language and History in Early Britain, Edinburgh University Press, pp. 349–50.
  3. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pages 203–5
  4. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1995) Studies in British Celtic historical phonology (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 5), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, pages 393–99