-ül

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Azerbaijani[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / Ə / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal
except after L
-ıl -il -ul -ül
after L -ın -in -un -ün
postvocalic -n

-ül

  1. Form of -il after the vowels A / I and a consonant other than L.
    döymək (to beat) + ‎-ül → ‎döyülmək (to get beaten)
    tökmək (to pour) + ‎-ül → ‎tökülmək (to fall out, get spilled)

Derived terms[edit]

See -il.


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ül

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an intransitive verb. It is similar to -edik.
    zöld (green)zöldül (to become (more) green)
    szép (beautiful)szépül (to become (more) beautiful)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ul is added to back-vowel words. Final vowel is dropped.
    -ül is added to front-vowel words. Final vowel is dropped.
    gyenge (weak)gyengül (to weaken)

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ül

  1. (adverb-forming suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an adverb (the modal sense of the essive-modal case).
    feltétlen (unconditional, definite)feltétlenül (unconditionally, definitely)
    török (Turkish)törökül (in Turkish)
  2. (case suffix) as, with the intention of (the essive sense of the essive-modal case)
    Synonyms: -ként, -képp/-képpen, mint (stating the capacity)
    meglepetés (surprise)meglepetésül (as a surprise)
    vég (end)végül (finally, eventually) (literally, “as an/the end”)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (adverb-forming suffix and case suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ul is added to back-vowel words. Final -a changes to -á-.
    -ül is added to front-vowel words. Final -e changes to -é-.

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ül

  1. offspring, young (of an animal), young organism (animal or plant) (e.g. torül = young bull, bullock; kunül = young cow, heifer; pijunül = young dove or pigeon, squab)
  2. Hypocoristic or used to denote affection for the noun.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In many languages, the diminutive form of a word can also be used to denote not (just) littleness but (also) affection or intimacy (for the word's referent), whereas in Volapük this secondary meaning of the diminutive is split off, since Volapük attempts, somewhat like Lojban, to avoid polysemy.

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]