-ül

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Azerbaijani[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -il (attached to stems containing 'i', 'e' and 'ə')
  • -ıl (attached to stems containing 'a' or 'ı')
  • -ul (attached to stems containing 'o' or 'u')

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ül

  1. Suffix appended to transitive verbs to derive verbs with passive or reflexive meaning. Applies only to verb stems containing 'ü', and 'ö'[1]
    döymək (to beat) + ‎-ül → ‎döyülmək (to get beaten)
    tökmək (to pour) + ‎-ül → ‎tökülmək (to fall out, get spilled)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Azerbaijani words suffixed with -ül not found

References[edit]

  1. ^ Širalijev, Mamedaga; Sevortjan, Ervand (1971), “-ül”, in Grammatika azerbajdžanskovo jazyka. Fonetika, morfologija i sintaksis. [Grammar of Azerbaijani language. Phonetics, morphology, syntax.], Baku: Elm, pages 106-108

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ül

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an intransitive verb. It is similar to -edik.
    zöld (green)zöldül (to become (more) green)
    szép (beautiful)szépül (to become (more) beautiful)
  2. (case suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an adverb (the modal sense of the essive-modal case).
    feltétlen (unconditional, definite)feltétlenül (unconditionally, definitely)
    török (Turkish)törökül (in Turkish)
  3. (case suffix) as, with the intention of (the essive sense of the the essive-modal case)
    vég (end)végül (finally, as an end)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ul is added to back vowel words. Final vowel is dropped.
    -ül is added to front vowel words. Final vowel is dropped.
    gyenge (weak)gyengül (to weaken)
  • (case case) Harmonic variants:
    -ul is added to back vowel words. Final -a changes to -á-.
    -ül is added to front vowel words. Final -e changes to -é-.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ül

  1. offspring, young (of an animal)
  2. Hypocoristic or used to denote affection for the noun.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In many languages, the diminutive form of a word can also be used to denote not (just) littleness but (also) affection or intimacy (for the word's referent), whereas in Volapük this secondary meaning of the diminutive is split off, since Volapük attempts, somewhat like Lojban, to avoid polysemy.

Derived terms[edit]