grunt

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See also: Grunt and grünt

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English grunten, from Old English grunnettan (to grunt), from Proto-West Germanic *grunnattjan, from Proto-Germanic *grunnatjaną (to grunt), frequentative of Proto-Germanic *grunnōną (to grunt), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰrun- (to shout).

Cognate with German grunzen (to grunt), Danish grynte (to grunt). The noun senses are all instances of zero derivation from the verb.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɡɹʌnt/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ʌnt

Noun[edit]

grunt (plural grunts)

  1. A short snorting sound, often to show disapproval, or used as a reply when one is reluctant to speak.
  2. The snorting cry of a pig.
  3. Any fish of the perciform family Haemulidae.
  4. A person who does ordinary and boring work.
    Synonyms: gofer, lackey, peon
  5. (US, military slang) An infantry soldier.
    Coordinate term: pogue
    • 1979, Gustav Hasford, The Short-Timers, New York: Bantam Books, published 1980, →ISBN, page 39:
      The poges stare at the grunts as though the grunts were Hell's Angels at the ballet.
    • 1984, Charles Robert Anderson, The Grunts, Berkley Books, →ISBN, page xii:
      The events described are those encountered by only 160 men, though the adversity recounted is representative of that experienced by all grunts in Vietnam.
    • 1986, James Cameron, Aliens, spoken by Burke (Paul Reiser):
      He can't make that kind of decision. He's just a grunt!
  6. (slang) The amount of power of which a vehicle is capable.
    • 1992, Autocar & Motor, volume 192, page 61:
      The engine might not possess quite as much grunt as the later 24v six, but it delivers invigorating performance []
    • 2006 February, Torque, page 56:
      With this much grunt, it is surprising that the engine is relatively quiet.
    • 2021 February, The Road Ahead, Brisbane, page 55, column 2:
      The lack of bottom-end grunt presents as a particular problem in hilly terrain where the five-speed manual gearbox really earns its keep.
  7. (Canada, US) A dessert of steamed berries and dough, usually blueberries; blueberry grunt.
    Synonyms: fungy, fungee

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

grunt (third-person singular simple present grunts, present participle grunting, simple past and past participle grunted)

  1. (intransitive, of a person) To make a grunt or grunts.
  2. (intransitive, of a pig) To make a grunt or grunts.
  3. (intransitive, UK, slang) To break wind; to fart.
    Who just grunted?

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

The frequentative form gruntle.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2024) “grunt”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

Masurian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish grunt.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈɡrunt]
  • Syllabification: grunt

Noun[edit]

grunt m inan

  1. estate; farm (owned land)
  2. soil (arable land)
  3. ground (bottom of a lake or pond)
  4. topsoil (top or subcutaneous layer of earth)
  5. base, ground; precipitate

Verb[edit]

grunt impf

  1. the most important thing is

Further reading[edit]

  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2024) “grunt”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur[2], volume 2, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, page 328

Middle English[edit]

Verb[edit]

grunt

  1. Alternative form of grunten

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Adjective[edit]

grunt

  1. neuter singular of grunn

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Adjective[edit]

grunt

  1. neuter singular of grunn

Old Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *grunduz.

Noun[edit]

grunt m

  1. ground

Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Dutch: gront

Further reading[edit]

  • grunt”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *grunduz.

Noun[edit]

grunt m

  1. ground
  2. root
  3. hollow

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Köbler, Gerhard, Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, (6. Auflage) 2014

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Middle High German grunt. First attested in 1402.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /ɡrunt/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /ɡrunt/

Noun[edit]

grunt m animacy unattested

  1. ground; field; land
    • 1874 [1402], Monumenta Medii Aevi Historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia. Pomniki Dziejowe Wieków Średnich do objaśnienia rzeczy polskich służące[3], volume XVII, page 81:
      Iohannes... conuallem scilicet vlg. grunt dictam... resignauit
      [Iohannes... conuallem scilicet vlg. grunt dictam... resignauit]
  2. core (basis of a given thing, foundation)
    • 1956 [Middle of the 15th century], Jerzy Woronczak, editor, Teksty polskie w rękopisie nr 43 Biblioteki Kapitulnej we Wrocławiu z połowy XV wieku[4], Silesia, page 56v:
      Dixit Paulus Petro: Pax tecum, fundamentum, grunt, ecclesiarum et pastor ovium
      [Dixit Paulus Petro: Pax tecum, fundamentum, grunt, ecclesiarum et pastor ovium]

Derived terms[edit]

adjectives

Related terms[edit]

adverbs

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish grunt.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grunt m inan (diminutive gruncik, related adjective gruntowy)

  1. (countable) ground (arable soil or earth)
    Synonyms: gleba, rola, ziemia
  2. (countable) ground (surface of the earth in a specific place)
    Synonym: ziemia
  3. (chiefly in the plural, officialese) ground (area of land that is owned by someone)
    Synonym: teren
  4. (uncountable, masonry) mortar; primer (substance that binds strongly to the substrate, used as a base for painting, plastering and polishing)
    Synonym: zaprawa
  5. (uncountable, literary) base; primer (previously prepared basis for certain actions; essential element of something) [+ dla (genitive)] [+ pod (accusative) = for what]
    Synonym: podstawa
  6. (uncountable, literary) foundation; core (certain ideological, cultural whole, characteristic of a specific country or social environment)
  7. (countable) ground (bottom of a body of water)
  8. (countable, obsolete) foundation (bottom of a construction)
    Synonym: fundament
  9. (countable, obsolete) core (reason or cause for something)
  10. (uncountable, obsolete) land; continent (area of the earth not covered by water)
    Synonym: ląd
  11. (Middle Polish) world
    Synonym: świat
  12. (Middle Polish) background
    Synonym: tło
  13. (Middle Polish) source; documentation; evidence (document or fact that can be relied upon)
  14. (Middle Polish) certainty, solidness
  15. (Middle Polish) source (place where something arises)
  16. (Middle Polish) etymology; etymon
    Synonym: źródłosłów
  17. (Middle Polish) original version of something
    Synonym: oryginał
  18. (Middle Polish) pattern, symbol
  19. (Middle Polish) prepositional phrase
  20. (Middle Polish) fundament; Further details are uncertain.
    • 1532, Bartłomiej z Bydgoszczy, Słownik łacińsko-polski[5], page 62:
      Fundamentum, grvnth, początek
    • 1564, J. Mączyński, Lexicon[6], page 400b:
      Solum, Dno/ grunt/ ziemiá.
    • 1564, J. Mączyński, Lexicon[7], pages 451c, 140b [2 r.]:
      Terrenum, Dno/ grunt álbo poległość ziemie.
    • 1588, A. Calepinus, Dictionarium decem linguarum[8], pages 441a, 990b:
      Fundum ‒ Grunt, dno.

Usage notes[edit]

The nominative and accusative plural form grunta is dated.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

adjectives
interjections
nouns
particles
phrases
verbs

Related terms[edit]

adverbs
nouns

Descendants[edit]

Trivia[edit]

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), grunt is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 12 times in scientific texts, 3 times in news, 23 times in essays, 14 times in fiction, and 12 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 64 times, making it the 1022nd most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “grunt”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 139

Further reading[edit]

  • grunt in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • grunt in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “grunt”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • GRUNT”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 25.05.2009
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “grunt”, in Słownik języka polskiego[9]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “grunt”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[10]
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “grunt”, in Słownik języka polskiego[11] (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 921

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from German Grund.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

grȕnt m (Cyrillic spelling гру̏нт)

  1. (regional) plot of land, lot

Declension[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Adjective[edit]

grunt

  1. indefinite neuter singular of grund

Adverb[edit]

grunt

  1. shallowly
    gentemot såväl grundt rationalistiska som känslosamt svärmiska religiösa riktningar.
    towards both shallowly rationalistic and emotionally fanatical religious tendencies.