-lle

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See also: lle and llé

Finnish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-lëk or *-llëk, related to and probably a variant of *-lën or *-llën (whence dialectal -len, -llen), which is related to *-sën (illative case suffix) and is composed of -l(l)- (external locative suffix) + Proto-Uralic *-ŋ (lative or dative suffix) (with an epenthetic *-e-). Compare Erzya and Moksha -нень (-ńeń) which is from Proto-Mordvinic *-ľeń.

It is not known whether the short *-l- or long *-ll- is original. If short, the long -l- may be due to analogy with -lla, -lta. The answer likely depends on the origin of the -l- itself. The traditional theory posits that it comes from the toponymic suffix *-la, but more recently it has been proposed that it is in fact a reduction of *ülä (upper, above); thus *...n *ül(ä)-nä > *...n-l-nä > *...lnä > *...llä.[1] The initial genitive ending is lost by reduction of a phonotactically impossible sequence, but not in *...n-l-en > *...ll-en, hence *-llën.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /-lːeˣ/, [-lːe̞(ʔ)]
  • IPA(key): /-lːe/, [-lːe̞] (dialectal)

Suffix[edit]

-lle

  1. forms the allative case of a noun, adjective, numeral or pronoun

Usage notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aikio, Ante & Ylikoski, Jussi. The origin of the Finnic l-cases. Fenno-Ugrica Suecana Nova Series 15 (2016). pp. 59-158

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-llëk. Cognates include Finnish -lle and Estonian -le.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-lle

  1. Used to form the allative case; onto

Inflection[edit]

Possessive forms of -lle
possessor singular plural
1st person -lleen -llemme
2nd person -llees -llenne
3rd person -llee -llesse

References[edit]

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[1], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 43