على

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See also: علي‎, علی‎, غلى, and غلي

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Hebrew עַל('al), עֲלֵי('aléi), Aramaic עַל(ʿal).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

عَلَى (ʿalā)

  1. on, over
  2. against
    يَوْمٌ لَكَ وَيَوْمٌ عَلَيْكَ‎‎
    yawmun laka wayawmun ʿalayka
    one day for you, and one day against you
    سَجَّلَ ٱللَّاعِبُ خَمْسَةَ أَهْدَافٍ عَلَى خَصْمِهِ
    sajjala l-lāʿibu ḵamsata ʾahdāfin ʿalā ḵaṣmihi
    The player scored five goals against his opponent.
  3. expresses obligation
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 24:54:
      وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ
      wamā ʿalā r-rasūli ʾillā l-balāḡu l-mubīnu
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  4. despite
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 13:6:
      وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى ظُلْمِهِمْ
      wa-ʾinna rabbaka laḏū maḡfiratin li-n-nāsi ʿalā ẓulmihim
      And indeed, your Lord is full of forgiveness for the people despite their wrongdoing
  5. on condition, provided
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 28:27:
      قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنْكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ٱبْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَى أَن تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ
      qāla ʾinnī ʾurīdu ʾan ʾunkiḥaka ʾiḥdā bnatayya hātayni ʿalā ʾan taʾjuranī ṯamāniya ḥijajin
      He said, "Indeed, I wish to wed you one of these, my two daughters, on the condition that you serve me for eight years,"
Inflection[edit]
    Inflected forms
Base form عَلَى (ʿalā)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person عَلَيَّ(ʿalayya) عَلَيْنَا(ʿalaynā)
Second person عَلَيْكَ(ʿalayka) عَلَيْكِ(ʿalayki) عَلَيْكُمَا(ʿalaykumā) عَلَيْكُمْ(ʿalaykum) عَلَيْكُنَّ(ʿalaykunna)
Third person عَلَيْهِ(ʿalayhi) عَلَيْهَا(ʿalayhā) عَلَيْهِمَا(ʿalayhimā) عَلَيْهِمْ(ʿalayhim) عَلَيْهِنَّ(ʿalayhinna)
Antonyms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Maltese: għal

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Morphologically from the root ع ل ي(ʿ-l-y).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

عَلَى (ʿalā) I, non-past يَعْلِي‎‎ (yaʿlī)

  1. (transitive) to climb.
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Morphologically from the root ع ل ي(ʿ-l-y).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

عُلًى (ʿulanf pl

  1. feminine plural of أَعْلَى(ʾaʿlā)

References[edit]

  • Freytag, Georg (1835) , “على”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 3, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 215–216
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) , “على”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 352–356
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) , “على”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, page 746–750

Egyptian Arabic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ع(ʕa-)

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕala)

  1. on, upon

Inflection[edit]

Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕala)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person علي(ʕalayya) علينا(ʕalēna)
2nd person عليك(ʕalēk) عليك(ʕalēki) عليكوا(ʕalēku)
3rd person عليه(ʕalēh) عليها(ʕalēha) عليهم(ʕalēhum)

Hijazi Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

على (ʿala)

  1. on, over
    Synonym: عَـ(ʿa, on, over)
    حتلاقيه على الرف/عالرف
    ḥatlāgī ʿala al-raff/ʿal-raff
    You will find it on rack
  2. against
    يوم ليك و يوم عليك
    yōm līk u yōm ʿalēk
    one day for you, and one day against you
  3. despite
Inflection[edit]
Inflected forms of على
Base form على(ʿala)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person عَلَيّ(ʿalayya) علينا(ʿalēna)
2nd person عليك(ʿalēk) عليكي(ʿalēki) عليكم(ʿalēkum)
3rd person عليه(ʿalē) عليها(ʿalēha) عليهم(ʿalēhum)

Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕla)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. against
  3. expresses obligation

Inflection[edit]

Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕla)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person علي(ʕliyya) علينا(ʕlīna)
2nd person عليك(ʕlīk) عليك(ʕlīki) عليكم(ʕlīkum)
3rd person عليه(ʕlīh) عليها(ʕlīha) عليهم(ʕlīhum)

North Levantine Arabic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ع(ʕa-)

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕala)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. (by extension) with a hint of
  3. about (a topic)
  4. to (a place)
    عم نسافر ع بيروت
    ʕam nsāfir ʕa bayrūt
    We’re travelling to Beirut.
  5. Used with an adjective given the definite article, marking it as an adverb

Usage notes[edit]

  • The personal forms are built from the stem ʕlay- or ʕalay- as in عليكن(ʕ(a)laykun, on you).
  • Sense 2 is construed as "A على‎ B"; literally, "A on B". A is the dominant element in such a construction, not B, even though this seems to conflict with a literal reading:
    1. بوظا على جوز
      būẓa ʕala jōz
      almond-flavored ice cream, or ice cream with almonds
      (literally, “ice cream on almonds”)
    2. جوز على بوظا
      jōz ʕala būẓa
      ice-cream-flavored almonds
      (literally, “almonds on ice cream”)

South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • Shortened form: عـ(ʕa-)

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕala)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. about (a topic)
  3. at (a time)
  4. to (a place)

Inflection[edit]

    Inflected forms of على
Base form على (ʕala)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person عليّ(ʕalayy) علينا(ʕalēna)
2nd person عليك(ʕalēk) عليك(ʕalēki) عليكم(ʕalēkom)
3rd person عليه(ʕalē) عليها(ʕalēha) عليهم(ʕalēhom)

Etymology 2[edit]

Root
ع ل ي

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

علّى (ʕalla) (form II, present بعلّي(biʕalli), subjunctive يعلّي(yʕalli))

  1. to raise (the volume, one's voice)
    Antonym: وطّى(waṭṭa)
Conjugation[edit]
    Conjugation of على
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m علّيت(ʕallēt) علّيت(ʕallēt) علّى (ʕalla) علّينا(ʕallēna) علّيتو(ʕallētu) علّو(ʕallu)
f علّيتي(ʕallēti) علّت(ʕallat)
present m بعلّي(baʕalli) بتعلّي(bitʕalli) بعلّي(biʕalli) منعلّي(minʕalli) بتعلّو(bitʕallu) بعلّو(biʕallu)
f بتعلّي(bitʕalli) بتعلّي(bitʕalli)
subjunctive m اعلّي(aʕalli) تعلّي(tʕalli) يعلّي(yʕalli) نعلّي(nʕalli) تعلّو(tʕallu) يعلّو(yʕallu)
f تعلّي(tʕalli) تعلّي(tʕalli)
imperative m علّي(ʕalli) علّو(ʕallu)
f علّي(ʕalli)