على

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: علي‎, علی‎, غلى, and غلي

Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Hebrew עַל('al), עֲלֵי('aléi), Aramaic עַל(ʿal).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

عَلَى (ʿalā)

  1. on, over
  2. against
    يَوْمٌ لَكَ وَيَوْمٌ عَلَيْكَ‎‎
    yawmun laka wayawmun ʿalayka
    one day for you, and one day against you
    سَجَّلَ ٱللَّاعِبُ خَمْسَةَ أَهْدَافٍ عَلَى خَصْمِهِ
    sajjala l-lāʿibu ḵamsata ʾahdāfin ʿalā ḵaṣmihi
    The player scored five goals against his opponent.
  3. expresses obligation
    عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تَدْرُسَ كَيْ تَنْجَحَ.‎‎
    ʿalayka ʾan tadrusa kay tanjaḥa.
    You have to study to be successful.
  4. despite
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 13:6:
      وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى ظُلْمِهِمْ
      wa-ʾinna rabbaka laḏū maḡfiratin li-n-nāsi ʿalā ẓulmihim
      And indeed, your Lord is full of forgiveness for the people despite their wrongdoing
  5. on condition, provided
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 28:27:
      قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنْكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ٱبْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَى أَن تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ
      qāla ʾinnī ʾurīdu ʾan ʾunkiḥaka ʾiḥdā bnatayya hātayni ʿalā ʾan taʾjuranī ṯamāniya ḥijajin
      He said, "Indeed, I wish to wed you one of these, my two daughters, on the condition that you serve me for eight years,"
Usage notes[edit]
  • Sense 3 can be construed with either a verbal noun or the equivalent construction with أَنْ(ʾan). See there for more.
Inflection[edit]
Antonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Morphologically from the root ع ل ي(ʿ-l-y).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

عَلَى (ʿalā) I, non-past يَعْلِي‎‎ (yaʿlī)

  1. (transitive) to climb.
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Morphologically from the root ع ل ي(ʿ-l-y).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

عُلًى (ʿulanf pl

  1. feminine plural of أَعْلَى(ʾaʿlā)

References[edit]

  • Freytag, Georg (1835), “على”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum, volume 3, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 215–216
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860), “على”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 352–356
  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “على”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, page 746–750

Egyptian Arabic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ع(ʕa-)

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕala)

  1. on, upon

Inflection[edit]



Hijazi Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

على (ʿala)

  1. on, over
    Synonym: عَـ(ʿa, on, over)
    حتلاقيه على الرف/عالرف
    ḥatlāgī ʿala al-raff/ʿal-raff
    You will find it on rack
  2. against
    يوم ليك و يوم عليك
    yōm līk u yōm ʿalēk
    one day for you, and one day against you
  3. despite
Inflection[edit]



Moroccan Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕla)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. against
  3. expresses obligation

Inflection[edit]



North Levantine Arabic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ع(ʕa-)

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic عَلَى(ʿalā).

Preposition[edit]

على (ʕala)

  1. on; upon; onto
  2. (by extension) with a hint of
  3. about (a topic)
  4. to (a place)
    عم نسافر ع بيروت
    ʕam nsāfir ʕa bayrūt
    We’re travelling to Beirut.
  5. Used with an adjective given the definite article, marking it as an adverb

Usage notes[edit]

  • The personal forms are built from the stem ʕlay- or ʕalay- as in عليكن(ʕ(a)laykun, on you).
  • Sense 2 is construed as "A على‎ B"; literally, "A on B". A is the dominant element in such a construction, not B, even though this seems to conflict with a literal reading:
    1. بوظا على جوز
      būẓa ʕala jōz
      almond-flavored ice cream, or ice cream with almonds
      (literally, “ice cream on almonds”)
    2. جوز على بوظا
      jōz ʕala būẓa
      ice-cream-flavored almonds
      (literally, “almonds on ice cream”)