ل

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See also: J, ⁧ك⁩, , and

ل U+0644, ل
ARABIC LETTER LAM
ك
[U+0643]
Arabic م
[U+0645]
U+FEDD, ﻝ
ARABIC LETTER LAM ISOLATED FORM

[U+FEDC]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEDE]
U+FEDE, ﻞ
ARABIC LETTER LAM FINAL FORM

[U+FEDD]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEDF]
U+FEDF, ﻟ
ARABIC LETTER LAM INITIAL FORM

[U+FEDE]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEE0]
U+FEE0, ﻠ
ARABIC LETTER LAM MEDIAL FORM

[U+FEDF]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEE1]

Arabic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /laːm/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /l/, /ɫ/

Etymology 1[edit]

From the Nabataean Aramaic letter ⁧𐢑(l, lamadh), derived from the Phoenician letter ⁧𐤋(l, lāmed), from the Egyptian hieroglyph 𓌅. See also Classical Syriac ⁧ܠ(l, lāmadh), Hebrew ⁧ל(l, lamed), Ancient Greek Λ (L), Latin L.

Letter[edit]

ل / ل‍ / ‍ل‍ / ‍ل (lām)

  1. The twenty-third letter of the Arabic alphabet. It is preceded by ⁧ك(k) and followed by ⁧م(m).
See also[edit]

Symbol[edit]

ل / ل‍ / ‍ل‍ / ‍ل (lām)

  1. The twelfth letter in traditional abjad order, which is used in place of numerals for list numbering (abjad numerals). It is preceded by ⁧ك(k) and followed by ⁧م(m).

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Semitic *lV-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

لِـ (li-)

  1. to, for, belonging to.
Usage notes[edit]

When ⁧لِـ(li-) is followed by the definite article ⁧اَلْ(al-, the), the alif of the article is dropped from the spelling, resulting in the spelling ⁧لِلْ⁩. However, if this would result in three lams in a row, because the first letter following the definite article is also lam, then the lam with sukun is also dropped, resulting in a spelling starting with ⁧لِلّـ⁩, with only two lams; for example, ⁧لِلَّيْلَة(li-l-layla, for tonight), ⁧لِلّٰهِ(li-llāhi, to God). The pronunciation is entirely regular in all of these cases.

Inflection[edit]
    Inflected forms
Base form لِـ(li-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person لِي / لِيَ(lī / liya) لَنَا(lanā)
Second person لَكَ(laka) لَكِ(laki) لَكُمَا(lakumā) لَكُمْ(lakum) لَكُنَّ(lakunna)
Third person لَهُ(lahu) لَهَا(lahā) لَهُمَا(lahumā) لَهُمْ(lahum) لَهُنَّ(lahunna)
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

(via third-person singular masculine form ⁧لَهُ(lahu)):

  • Azerbaijani: ləh
  • Persian: ⁧له(lah)

Preposition[edit]

لَـ (la-)

  1. Used to express admiration
    يَا لَلْعَجَبِ!
    la-l-ʕajabi!
    How wonderful!
    يَا لَهُ مِنْ عَالَمٍ رَائِعٍ!
    lahu min ʕālamin rāʔiʕin!
    What a wonderful world!
  2. Used to call for help
    يَا لَلْأُمِّ لِلْأَطْفَالِ!
    lalʔummi lilʔaṭfāli!
    Oh for mother to the children! (Oh mother, help your children!)
Usage notes[edit]

It is often used in the form ⁧يَا لَهُ [مِنْ] ...⁩, that is, ⁧يَا لَـ⁩ followed by an enclitic pronoun that does not refer to any previous noun. Rather the pronoun refers to what follows it, with an optional ⁧مِنْ⁩ in the middle.[1]

Inflection[edit]
    Inflected forms
Base form لَـ(la-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person لِي / لِيَ(lī / liya) لَنَا(lanā)
Second person لَكَ(laka) لَكِ(laki) لَكُمَا(lakumā) لَكُمْ(lakum) لَكُنَّ(lakunna)
Third person لَهُ(lahu) لَهَا(lahā) لَهُمَا(lahumā) لَهُمْ(lahum) لَهُنَّ(lahunna)

Conjunction[edit]

لِـ (li-)

  1. to, in order to: followed by the subjunctive mood
    دَخَلْتُ ٱلْمَطْبَخَ لِأَشْرَبَ مَاءً.
    daḵaltu l-maṭbaḵa li-ʔašraba māʔan.
    I entered the kitchen to drink water.
  2. used with the verbs ⁧أَرَادَ(ʔarāda) and ⁧أَمَرَ(ʔamara)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 33:33:
      إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّٰهُ لِيُذُهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ
      ʔinnamā yurīdu llāhu liyuḏuhiba ʕankumu r-rijsa
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  3. only to (⁧لَامُ الْعَاقِبَة(lāmu l-ʕāqiba))
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 28:8:
      فَالْتَقَطَهُ آلُ فِرْعَوْنَ لِيَكُونَ لَهُمْ عَدُوًّا وَحَزَنًا
      fāltaqaṭahu ʾālu firʿawna li-yakūna lahum ʿaduwwan wa-ḥazanan
      And so the family of the Pharaoh picked him up, only to become an enemy and a grief.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

لِـ (li-)

  1. Used to introduce an imperative with a jussive verb; let
    • 9th century, Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj, quoting Muhammad, “⁧كتاب الحج⁩”, in Sahih Muslim:
      لِتَأْخُذُوا مَنَاسِكَكُمْ فَإِنِّي لَا أَدْرِي لَعَلِّي لَا أَحُجُّ بَعْدَ حَجَّتِي هَذِهِ
      litaʔḵuḏū manāsikakum faʔinnī lā ʔadrī laʕallī lā ʔaḥujju baʕda ḥajjatī haḏihi
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 18:29:
      وَقُلِ ٱلْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِنْ وَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ
      waquli l-ḥaqqu min rabbikum faman šāʔa falyuʔmin waman šāʔa falyakfur
      And say, "The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills, let him believe; and whoever wills, let him disbelieve."

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

لَـ (la-)

  1. (intensifying particle) truly, verily, certainly, surely
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 29:41:
      وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ ٱلْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ ٱلْعَنْكَبُوتِ
      wa-ʔinna ʔawhana l-buyūti la-baytu l-ʕankabūti
      And indeed, the weakest of homes is the home of the spider.
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 89:14:
      إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَبِالْمِرْصَادِ
      ʔinna rabbaka la-bi-l-mirṣādi
      Verily, thy Lord is on the lookout.
Usage notes[edit]

Frequently used after ⁧إِنَّ(ʔinna).

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

لِ (li) (form I)

  1. second-person masculine singular active imperative of وَلِيَ(waliya)

References[edit]

  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “ل”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN
  1. ^ de Sacy, Silvestre (1831) Grammaire arabe[1] (in French), volume 1, pages 475-476

Balti[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /l/, [l~lʱ~ɭ~ɫ̥]

Letter[edit]

ل⁩ (transliteration needed)

  1. The thirty-seventh letter of the Balti alphabet, written in the Perso-Arabic script

Burushaski[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل⁩ (l)

  1. The thirty-eighth letter of the Burushaski alphabet, written in the Perso-Arabic script

Kashmiri[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل (l)

  1. The thirty-sixth letter of the traditional alphabet chart of Kashmiri.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧گ(g)
  • Next letter: ⁧م(m)

Kazakh[edit]

Alternative scripts
Arabic ل
Cyrillic Л, л
Latin L, l
Yañalif L, l

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل (l)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Kazakh in Arabic Script. It represents the Cyrillic letter Л.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

Khowar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل⁩ (lām)

  1. The thirty-ninth and first lam letter of the Khowar abjad.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧گ
  • Next letter: ⁧ڵ

Malay[edit]

Malay Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ms

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل / ل‍ / ‍ل‍ / ‍ل

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Arabic script.

See also[edit]

  • (Arabic script letters) ⁧ا⁩,‎ ⁧ب⁩,‎ ⁧ت⁩,‎ ⁧ة⁩,‎ ⁧ث⁩,‎ ⁧ج⁩,‎ ⁧چ⁩,‎ ⁧ح⁩,‎ ⁧خ⁩,‎ ⁧د⁩,‎ ⁧ذ⁩,‎ ⁧ر⁩,‎ ⁧ز⁩,‎ ⁧س⁩,‎ ⁧ش⁩,‎ ⁧ص⁩,‎ ⁧ض⁩,‎ ⁧ط⁩,‎ ⁧ظ⁩,‎ ⁧ع⁩,‎ ⁧غ⁩,‎ ⁧ڠ⁩,‎ ⁧ف⁩,‎ ⁧ڤ⁩,‎ ⁧ق⁩,‎ ⁧ک⁩,‎ ⁧ݢ⁩,‎ ⁧ل⁩,‎ ⁧م⁩,‎ ⁧ن⁩,‎ ⁧و⁩,‎ ⁧ۏ⁩,‎ ⁧ه⁩,‎ ⁧ء⁩,‎ ⁧ي⁩,‎ ⁧ى⁩,‎ ⁧ڽ[edit]

North Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabicلِ(li, to, for, towards). The initial syllable in suffixed forms is likely a contemporary development rather than influence from Arabicإِلَى(ʔilā, to, for, towards), whose initial glottal stop would have naturally been lost as seen below; instead, compare the development of the initial syllable in ⁧إِجَا(ʔija, to come).

Preposition[edit]

ل (la)

  1. to, towards
  2. for
  3. by; made by; pertaining to
Usage notes[edit]
  • Personal suffixes are attached to the stem ʾil-: ⁧إلي(ʔili, to me), ⁧إلك(ʔilak, to you), etc. Often, however, reduplicated forms from the stem laʾil- are used, thus ⁧لإلي(laʔili), ⁧لإلك(laʔilak).
Synonyms[edit]
  • (towards):ع(ʕa); ⁧صوب(ṣawb)
  • (for):كرمال(kirmāl) and synonyms there.

Conjunction[edit]

ل (la)

  1. in order that
Usage notes[edit]
  • Also equivalent to the often-invisible English for as in for to.
Synonyms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ـلـ (-l-, -ill-)

  1. to, for; dative suffix
    صِرت قَايلِتلَك مِليوْن مَرَّة مَا تدَعْوِسْلِي عَالأرض البَعدنَا منَضّفِينو!
    ṣirt ʾāylitlak milyōn marra ma tdaʿwisli ʿal-ʾarḍ l-baʿdna mnaḍḍfīno!
    I've told you a million times, don't step all over the floor if we've just cleaned it!
    (literally, “I've said to you a million times, don't step [for] me all over the floor that we've just cleaned!”)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Immediately followed by a personal suffix. ⁧ل(-l-) almost-always avoids creating superheavy syllables before itself.
    • Superheavy syllables CVVC are avoided by contracting the long vowel, such as when attaching to a hollow verb. In particular, long ā, even when raised to ē as in Lebanon and urban Syria, always contracts to a rather than to i — and North Levantine varieties have overwhelmingly merged short u and short i into i, meaning that ū and ī also both contract into i.
      جَاب(jāb (jēb), he brought) ⇒ ⁧جَبلِي(jabli, he brought me, literally he brought to me), not ⁧*جَابلِي(*jābli (*jēbli)).
      شُوف(šūf, look at, check out, masculine imperative) ⇒ ⁧شِفلِي(šifli, look at [...] for me, check out for me)
    • Some speakers extend this to the plural ending -īn of active participles.
      قَايلِين(ʔāylīn, have said, pl) ⇒ ⁧قَايلِينلي(ʔāylīnli) or ⁧قَايلِنلي(ʔāylinli, have told me, plural, literally have said to me).
    • The suffix avoids all other kinds of heavy syllables by attaching to the base as either -ill- or -all-. The -all- ending is used on third-person masculine singular Form I biliteral verbs in the past tense, and the -ill- ending everywhere else.
      حَطّ(ḥaṭṭ, he set down, transitive) ⇒ ⁧حَطَّلِّي(ḥaṭṭalli, he set down for me, transitive)
      مشِيت(mšīt, you walked, masculine) ⇒ ⁧مشِيتِلَّك(mšītilli, you walked to me; you walked for me)
      كَتَبت(katabt, you wrote, masculine) ⇒ ⁧كَتَبتِلِّي(katabtilli, you wrote to me; you wrote for me)
    • In other cases, i.e. in environments where sticking -l- directly onto the end of the base would not create a final heavy syllable, it attaches as is.
      كَتَبِت(katabit, she wrote) ⇒ ⁧كَتَبَِتلِي(katabatli, katabitli, she wrote to me; she wrote for me)
  • Unlike in Egyptian Arabic, the Levantine form of this suffix can only attach to the base word, not to any preceding suffixes. This means it bumps any object suffixes off into their own words.
    • حَطَّيْناه(ḥaṭṭaynḗ, we put it down) ⇒ ⁧حَطَّيْنالِك ياه، حَطَّيْنالِك هو(ḥaṭṭaynēlik yē, ḥaṭṭaynēlik huwwe, we put it down for you)
  • This suffix isn't limited to appearing on verbs and their active participles. It can also attach to elatives, passive participles of verbs, and even other parts of speech.
    • It only rarely appears on other parts of speech, and when it does, it's the result of an originally-unbound ⁧لَ(la, to, for) merging into a word it commonly appears with. That's the case with ⁧بَعدِلّـ(baʕdill-, (of time) remaining for), from ⁧بَعْد(baʕd, still; remaining, adverb, literally [there is] still [time]) + ⁧لـ(l-, for; belonging to).
    • It's also uncommon for this suffix to attach to passive participles, which means that passive participles that end in ū will generally contract it into a short u instead of a short i if it's attached to them. Two somewhat-common examples are ⁧مَسمُحلـ(masmuḥl-, permitted for) and ⁧مقَدَّرلـ(mʔaddarl-, fated for, preordained for).
    • It can only attach to elatives to refer to the better or best of a set of choices, like ⁧أَريَحَلِي(ʔaryaḥli, more/most comfortable for me) and ⁧أَنضَفلنَا(ʔanḍaflna, cleaner/cleanest for us). It's generally invalid to use it on an elative that describes a negative trait, like ⁧*أَوْسَخلَك(*ʔawsaḵlak, dirtier/dirtiest for you) or ⁧*أصعَبلَك(ʔaṣʕablak, more/most difficult for you), because it imparts a positive slant on the trait the elative describes. In contrast, ⁧عَلَى(ʕala, in relation to) can construe elatives no matter what they mean: ⁧أَهيَن علَيك(ʔahyan ʕlēk, easier for you) is synonymous with ⁧أَهيَنلَك(ʔahyanlak, easier for you), but the only valid antonym is ⁧أَصعَب علَيك(ʔaṣʕab ʕlēk, more/most difficult for you, literally more/most difficult in relation to you) instead of ⁧*أصعَبلَك(ʔaṣʕablak, more/most difficult for you).

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabicإِلَى(ʔilā, to, for, toward).

Preposition[edit]

ل (la)

  1. to, toward
Usage notes[edit]
  • Its suffix-base form is lay-, similarly to ⁧عَلَى(ʕala). This distinguishes it from the preposition above when constructed with a personal suffix.
  • For the most part, only used in the phrases ⁧مِنُّو لَيه(minno lē, in its entirety; altogether, literally from it to it), ⁧قِدِر لَ(ʔidir la, to be able to handle, literally to be able toward), ⁧فِيه لَ(fī la, can handle, literally can toward), and ⁧إِجَا لَ(ʔija la, to come for). However, it is also uncommonly used to construe other verbs of motion as a generalized sense of the last phrase, where it retains the sense of intending “to apprehend or cause harm” suggested by come for:
    وَاللَّه حَإِضهَر لَيك
    waḷḷa ḥaʾiḍhar lēk
    I swear, I'm going to come out there and come for you.
    (literally, “I swear I'm going to come out toward you”)

Pashto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل (lâm)

  1. The thirty-fourth letter of the Pashto alphabet.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧ګ
  • Next letter: ⁧م

Persian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Letter[edit]

ل / لـ / ـلـ / ـل (lâm)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet. It is preceded by ⁧گ⁩ and followed by ⁧م⁩. Its name is ⁧لام⁩.

Sindhi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل⁩ (lām)

  1. The forty-sixth letter of the Sindhi abjad.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧ڱ
  • Next letter: ⁧م

South Levantine Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicلِ(li).

Preposition[edit]

لـ (la-)

  1. to (someone); belonging to; for
  2. to (a place)
    Synonym:على(ʕala)
  3. until, up to
    Synonyms:حتّى(ḥatta), ⁧لحدّ(la-ḥadd)

Conjunction[edit]

لـ (la-)

  1. so that (before a subjunctive verb)
    Synonyms:حتّى(ḥatta-), ⁧عشان(ʕašan), ⁧منشان(minšān)

Suffix[edit]

ـلـ (-l-, il, -ill-)

  1. to; for (indirect object suffix with an attached enclitic pronoun)
    Synonym: (detached version for emphasis)إلـ(ʔil-)

Usage notes[edit]

  • This suffix is attached to a verb expressing the indirect object.
  • If the verb ends in a consonant cluster, the "-l-" is geminated and the stress shifts before an enclitic pronoun starting with a vowel.

Inflection[edit]

    Inflected forms of ⁧ل
Base form ـلـ(-l-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person ـلي(-li, -illi) ـلنا(-lna, -ilna)
2nd person ـلك(-lak, -illak) ـلك(-lek, -illek) ـلكم(-lkom, ilkom)
3rd person ـله(-lo, -illo) ـلها(-lha, -ilha) ـلهم(-lhom, ihom)
Examples
Vowel One consonant Two consonants
Example حكى(ḥáka, he talked) كتب(kátab, he wrote) كتبت(katábt, I/you wrote)
1st singular حكالي(ḥakā-li) كتبلي(katáb-li) كتبتلي(katabt-ílli)
plural حكالنا(ḥakā-lna) كتبلنا(katab-ílna) كتبتلنا(katabt-ílna)
2nd masculine حكالك(ḥakā-lak) كتبلك(katáb-lak) كتبتلك(katabt-íllak)
feminine حكالك(ḥakā-lek) كتبلك(katáb-lek) كتبتلك(katabt-íllek)
plural حكالكم(ḥakā-lkom) كتبلكم(katab-ílkom) كتبتلكم(katabt-ílkom)
3rd masculine حكاله(ḥakā-lo) كتبله(katáb-lo) كتبتله(katabt-íllo)
feminine حكالها(ḥakā-lha) كتبلها(katab-ílha) كتبتلها(katabt-ílha)
plural حكالهم(ḥakā-lhom) كتبلهم(katab-ílhom) كتبتلهم(katabt-ílhom)

Urdu[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل (lām)

  1. The thirtieth letter of the Urdu abjad.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧گ(g)
  • Next letter: ⁧م(m)

Uyghur[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل (le)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Uyghur alphabet.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧ڭ(ng)
  • Next letter: ⁧م(m)

Yoruba[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

ل⁩ (l)

  1. The thirteenth letter of the Yoruba alphabet in the ajami script, equivalent to Latin script l.

Forms[edit]

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: ⁧ك
  • Next letter: ⁧م