Jump to navigation Jump to search
These are the rules concerning transliteration in Persian entries.
This page focuses on Iranian Persian, for transliteration rules concerning Classical Persian or Dari Persian see Persian transliteration/Dari.
|ا (word-initial)||a, o, e||(ʔ)æ, (ʔ)o, (ʔ)e|
|ا (other positions)||â||ɒː||ā|
-â (other positions)
ʔɒː (other positions)
|ث||s||s||th, s̱, ṯ, s̄|
|خ||x||x||kh, k͟h, ḫ, ḵ|
|ذ||z||z||dh, d͟h, ẕ, ḏ|
|ض||z||z||ḍ, ż, ẕ|
|غ||ğ||ɣ, ɢ||q, gh, g͟h, ġ|
|ق||q||ɣ, ɢ||gh, g͟h, ḳ|
|و (long vowel)||u, ô||uː, oː||ū, ō|
|و (diphthong)||ow||ow||au, aw|
|خوا (e.g. خواندن etc.)||xâ||xɒː||xwā-, khwā-|
|خوی (e.g. خوید etc.)||xi||xiː|
|ه (consonant)||h (may appear in final position after a vowel, e.g. ده (dah))||h|
|ـه (word-final vowel)||e||e, æ||eh, a, ah|
|ی (long vowel)||i, ê||iː, eː||ī, ē|
|ی (diphthong)||ey||ej||ai, ay|
|یٰ (always word-final)||â||ɒː||ā, á|
Other symbols or combinations
- ـاً, ءً (always word-final) – an (The position of [fatHatan] is after the alef, not before, as is the current practice with Arabic)
- ء – ' (others: ʼ)
- ؤ – ' (others: ʼ)
- ئ – ' (others: ʼ)
- ـِ (ezâfe) (always word-final, unmarked in regular writing) – -e
- یِ (ezâfe) (after long vowels ا (â) or و (u), unmarked in regular writing) - -ye
- آفریقایِ جنوبی ― âfriqâ-ye jonubi ― South Africa
- یِ (ezâfe) (always word-final with ی, unmarked in regular writing) - i-ye
- جمهوریِ تاجیکستان ― jomhuri-ye tâjikestân ― Republic of Tajikistan
- ـهٔ (U+0647 U+0654), sometimes written as ـهی (always word-final) – e-ye. (Articles don't contain the hamze above "he", it is considered a diacritic and only used in the dsplay using
|head=. Templates link to words without the hamze.)
- ـهای - e-yi
- نه (“no, not”) - na (an exception)
- ـّ (tashdid) – geminate consonant (Arabic shadda)
- ـَ (fathe/zor) – a (Arabic fatha)
- ـِ (kasre/zir) – e (in modern Iranian, to check cases where it's "i") (Arabic kasra)
- ـُ (zamme/pish) – o (in modern Iranian, to check cases where it's "u") (Arabic damma). Used after consonants to make a short "o" sound. If used before و produces a diphthong "ow":
- نُوروز (nowruz)
- ـّ (shadda) – geminate consonant
- ـ۟ (sukūn/sokun) - marks absence of a vowel. Rarely used in popular Persian vocalisations, especially on final consonants. It may be necessary to use consistently in strict vocalisations to avoid any misreadings, allow automation and signalling that a word IS vocalised.
- ـه (in the word-final position after consonants for a large number of words) - e (no hyphen) (note with ezâfe the preferred spelling is ـهٔ)
- هفته ― hafte ― week
- ـه - when used as a colloquial copula in the 3rd person singular (he/she/it is) - -e (with a hyphen)
- تهرون پایتخت ایرونه. (colloquial) ― tehrun pâytaxt-e irun-e. ― Tehran is the capital of Iran.
- ZWNJ – - (hyphen)
- The use of hyphens for etymological reasons - suffixes, compound words, etc. when no ZWNJ is used is to be discussed. E.g. currently plural form suffix ها is transliterated as "-hâ" regardless if ZWNJ is present or not. (Apart from cases described above and ZWNJ, the use of hyphen is otherwise dispreferred. A space is transliterated as a space and the absence of space or ZWNJ is transliterated as nothing.)
- Below are transliteration examples to contrast the use of ZWNJ on connecting letters, space, nothing and non-connecting letters:
- ZWNJ on joining letters کتابها (ketâb-hâ) (plural of کتاب (ketâb))
- Space کتاب ها (ketâb hâ)
- Nothing (joining letters are connected) کتابها (ketâbhâ)
- Non-joining letters (no ZWNJ is used) اتوها (otuhâ) (plural of اتو (otu))
- ـة (always word-final) – a(t) (rare, only in unadapted borrowings from Arabic, normally adapted into Persian as ـت (at) or ـه (e))
- الـ - al (normally), can be "al-" (with a hyphen), if identified as the Arabic definite article. "l" can change to the following consonant if it's a "sun letter","a" can change to "o" (Arabic "u") in ezâfe, e.g.
- فارغالتحصیل (fâreğ-ot-tahsil) - here "l" is assimilated to "t" and "a" is changed to "o" following Arabic grammar rules (technically, Arabic "u" belongs to the previous word: "fāriḡu t-taḥṣīli").
- الـ - l or the next consonant (assimilated for Arabic "sun letters"). The alef is silent.