Wiktionary:Persian transliteration

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These are the rules concerning transliteration in Persian entries.

This page focuses on Iranian Persian, for transliteration rules concerning Classical Persian or Dari Persian see Persian transliteration/Dari.

Persian transliteration[edit]

Systems for Romanizing Persian
Persian Wiktionary IPA Others (dispreferred)
ا‎ (word-initial) a, o, e (ʔ)æ, (ʔ)o, (ʔ)e
ا‎ (other positions) â ɒː ā
آ â (word-initial)
-â (other positions)
(ʔ)ɒː (word-initial)
ʔɒː (other positions)
ب b b
پ p p
ت t t
ث s s th, s̱, ṯ, s̄
ج j ǧ
چ č ch, c
ح h h ḥ, ḩ
خ x x kh, k͟h, ḫ, ḵ
د d d
ذ z z dh, d͟h, ẕ, ḏ
ر r r
ز z z
ژ ž ʒ zh, z͟h
س s s
ش š ʃ sh, s͟h
ص s s
ض z z ḍ, ż, ẕ
ط t t ṭ, ţ
ظ z z ẓ, z̧
ع ' ʔ, ː ʻ
غ ğ ɣ, ɢ q, gh, g͟h, ġ
ف f f
ق q ɣ, ɢ gh, g͟h, ḳ
ک k k
گ g g
ل l l
م m m
ن n n
و‎ (consonant) v v w
و‎ (long vowel) u, ô uː, oː ū, ō
و‎ (diphthong[1]) ow ow au, aw
خوا‎ (e.g. خواندن‎ etc.) xɒː xwā-, khwā-
خوی‎ (e.g. خوید‎ etc.) xi xiː
ه‎ (consonant) h (may appear in final position after a vowel, e.g. ده(dah)) h
ـه‎ (word-final vowel) e e, æ eh, a, ah
ی‎ (consonant) y j j
ی‎ (long vowel) i, ê iː, eː ī, ē
ی‎ (diphthong[2]) ey ej ai, ay
یٰ‎ (always word-final) â ɒː ā, á
  1. ^ Unless bearing a shadda, in which case it is treated as consonant, e.g. اوّل(avval), not *owval
  2. ^ Unless bearing a shadda, in which case it is treated as consonant, e.g. ایّوب(ayyub), not *eyyub

Other symbols or combinations[edit]

  1. ـاً‎, ءً‎ (always word-final) – an (The position of [fatHatan] is after the alef, not before, as is the current practice with Arabic)
  2. ء‎ – ' (others: ʼ)
  3. ؤ‎ – ' (others: ʼ)
  4. ئ‎ – ' (others: ʼ)
  5. ـِ‎ (ezâfe) (always word-final, unmarked in regular writing) – -e
  6. یِ‎ (ezâfe) (after long vowels ا(â) or و(u), unmarked in regular writing) - -ye
    آفریقایِ جنوبی‎ ― âfriqâ-ye jonubiSouth Africa
  7. یِ‎ (ezâfe) (always word-final with ی‎, unmarked in regular writing) - i-ye
    جمهوریِ تاجیکستان‎ ― jomhuri-ye tâjikestânRepublic of Tajikistan
  8. ـهٔ‎ (U+0647 U+0654), sometimes written as ـه‌ی‎ (always word-final) – e-ye. (Articles don't contain the hamze above "he", it is considered a diacritic and only used in the dsplay using |head=. Templates link to words without the hamze.)
    خانهٔ بزرگ(spelled with a hamze diacritic)xâne-ye bozorga big house
    خانه‌ی بزرگ(spelled with a a non-connecting ye)xâne-ye bozorga big house
  9. ـه‌ای‎ - e-yi
  10. نه(no, not) - na (an exception)
  11. ـّ‎ (tashdid) – geminate consonant (Arabic shadda)
  12. ـَ‎ (fathe/zor) – a (Arabic fatha)
  13. ـِ‎ (kasre/zir) – e (in modern Iranian, to check cases where it's "i") (Arabic kasra)
  14. ـُ‎ (zamme/pish) – o (in modern Iranian, to check cases where it's "u") (Arabic damma). Used after consonants to make a short "o" sound. If used before و‎ produces a diphthong "ow":
  15. ـّ‎ (shadda) – geminate consonant
  16. ـ۟‎ (sukūn/sokun) - marks absence of a vowel. Rarely used in popular Persian vocalisations, especially on final consonants. It may be necessary to use consistently in strict vocalisations to avoid any misreadings, allow automation and signalling that a word IS vocalised.
  17. ـه‎ (in the word-final position after consonants for a large number of words) - e (no hyphen) (note with ezâfe the preferred spelling is ـهٔ‎)
    هفته‎ ― hafteweek
  18. ـه‎ - when used as a colloquial copula in the 3rd person singular (he/she/it is) - -e (with a hyphen)
    تهرون پایتخت ایرونه.‎‎ (colloquial)tehrun pâytaxt-e irun-e.Tehran is the capital of Iran.
  19. ZWNJ – - (hyphen)
  20. The use of hyphens for etymological reasons - suffixes, compound words, etc. when no ZWNJ is used is to be discussed. E.g. currently plural form suffix ها‎ is transliterated as "-hâ" regardless if ZWNJ is present or not. (Apart from cases described above and ZWNJ, the use of hyphen is otherwise dispreferred. A space is transliterated as a space and the absence of space or ZWNJ is transliterated as nothing.)
    Below are transliteration examples to contrast the use of ZWNJ on connecting letters, space, nothing and non-connecting letters:
    ZWNJ on joining letters کتاب‌ها(ketâb-hâ) (plural of کتاب(ketâb))
    Space کتاب ها(ketâb hâ)
    Nothing (joining letters are connected) کتابها(ketâbhâ)
    Non-joining letters (no ZWNJ is used) اتوها(otuhâ) (plural of اتو(otu))

Arabic loanwords[edit]

  1. ـة‎ (always word-final) – a(t) (rare, only in unadapted borrowings from Arabic, normally adapted into Persian as ـت(at) or ـه(e))
  2. الـ‎ - al (normally), can be "al-" (with a hyphen), if identified as the Arabic definite article. "l" can change to the following consonant if it's a "sun letter","a" can change to "o" (Arabic "u") in ezâfe, e.g.
    فارغ‌التحصیل(fâreğ-ot-tahsil) - here "l" is assimilated to "t" and "a" is changed to "o" following Arabic grammar rules (technically, Arabic "u" belongs to the previous word: "fāriḡu t-taḥṣīli").
  3. الـ‎ - l or the next consonant (assimilated for Arabic "sun letters"). The alef is silent.
    بالفعل(belfe'l) from Arabic بِٱلْفِعْلِ(bi-l-fiʕli) where the alif is silent (أَلِف الوَصْل(ʔalif al-waṣl))