co

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

co (plural cos)

  1. (slang) Clipping of company.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (US) enPR: , IPA(key): /koʊ/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -oʊ

Pronoun[edit]

co (third-person singular, gender-neutral, reflexive coself)

  1. (nonstandard) they (singular). Gender-neutral subject pronoun, coordinate with gendered pronouns he and she.
    • 1983, Ingrid Komar, Living the Dream: A Documentary Study of Twin Oaks Community:
      Co consistently does less than cos share of the Community work. 4. Co absents coself from the Community for more than three weeks [...]
    • 1996, Brett Beemyn, Mickey Elianon, Queer studies: a lesbian, gay, bisexual, & transgender anthology, page 74:
      At the very least, an individual might have to use different terms to describe coself in a heterosexual context than co uses in a sexual minority context [...]
    • 2004 April 1, "Pieira dos Lobos" (username), "Fern's Story two", alt.magick.serious, Usenet:
      A youngster of my own introduction had been rejected by an object of preadolescent craving and had killed coself by leaping at the ceiling of co's quarters. Co was a rising Large Game star, her spring was powerful, our gravity flux was low - co's head struck the surface with enough force to kill on impact.
  2. (nonstandard) them (singular). Gender-neutral object pronoun, coordinate with gendered pronouns him and her.
Hyponyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Czech čso, from Proto-Slavic *čьto, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷid, *kʷis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

co

  1. what
    Co se děje?What's up?
    Co se stalo?What happened?

Conjunction[edit]

co

  1. that
    Od té doby, co jsme spolu...Since we’ve been together... (lit.) Since the time that we’ve been together...
  2. what
    Ví, co chce.He knows what he wants.

Particle[edit]

co

  1. (indeclinable) isn't it so, don't you think?
    To je pěkné, co?That’s nice, isn’t it?

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • co in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • co in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin quod.

Pronoun[edit]

co

  1. what

Dumbea[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

co

  1. water

References[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [t͡so]
  • Hyphenation: co

Noun[edit]

co (accusative singular co-on, plural co-oj, accusative plural co-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter C.

See also[edit]


Fijian[edit]

Noun[edit]

co

  1. grass

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From contraction of preposition con (with) + masculine definite article o (the)

Contraction[edit]

co m (feminine coa, masculine plural cos, feminine plural coas)

  1. with the

Gallo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French coc.

Noun[edit]

co m

  1. rooster, cockerel, cock

Ido[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

co (plural ci)

  1. Alternative form of ico (this)

Khumi Chin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

co

  1. Northern Khumi form of caw

References[edit]

  • D. A. Peterson (2013), “Aesthetic aspects of Khumi grammar”, in The Aesthetics of Grammar, Cambridge University Press, page 220

Ladin[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

co

  1. than (used in comparisons)

Adverb[edit]

co

  1. how (in what manner)
  2. how (in what state)

Derived terms[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • zo (obsolete)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *čьto, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷid, *kʷis.

Pronoun[edit]

co

  1. what (interrogative)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

co

  1. third-person singular present of kśěś

Further reading[edit]

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “co”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “co”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Middle Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish co, from Proto-Celtic *kʷos.

Preposition[edit]

co (takes the accusative; triggers h-prothesis before vowels)

  1. to, toward
    • c. 1000, The Tale of Mac Da Thó's Pig, section 1, published in Irische Teste, vol. 1 (1880), edited by Ernst Windisch:
      Ro·ferad failte friu uile, ocus ructha chucisium isin mbruidin.
      They were all made welcome and brought to him in the hall.

Inflection[edit]

Forms combined with an object pronoun

Forms combined with the definite article:

Forms combined with the relative particle:

Forms combined with a possessive determiner:

  • 1st person singular: com
  • 2nd person singular: cot
  • 3rd person: co a, ca

Descendants[edit]

  • Irish: chuig, chun, go
  • Scottish Gaelic: gu

Further reading[edit]


Norman[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French colp, coup, from Vulgar Latin *colpus, from Classical Latin colaphus (blow with the fist; cuff), from Ancient Greek κόλαφος (kólaphos, blow, slap).

Noun[edit]

co m (plural cos)

  1. (Jersey) blow
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old French coq, coc.

Noun[edit]

co m (plural cos)

  1. (Jersey) cockerel
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old French col, from Latin collum (neck).

Noun[edit]

co m (plural cos)

  1. (Jersey, Guernsey, Normandy, anatomy) neck
Alternative forms[edit]

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Persian جوی(juy) or Persian جو(ju).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

co m

  1. ditch, trench, channel, canal, duct, fosse, aqueduct, sluice

Derived terms[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *kom, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (next to, at, with, along).[1] Cognate with German ge- (with) (collective prefix) and gegen (toward, against), English gain-, Spanish con (with)

Preposition[edit]

co (takes the dative, triggers nasalization)

  1. with
    Synonym: la
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 97d10
      Is peccad díabul lesom .i. fodord doïb di dommatu, ⁊ du·fúairthed ní leu fora sáith din main, ⁊ todlugud inna féulæ ɔ amairis nánda·tibérad Día doïb, ⁊ nach coimnacuir ⁊ issi dano insin ind frescissiu co fochaid.
      It is a double sin in his opinion, i.e. the murmuring by them of want, although there remained some of the manna with them upon their satiety, and demanding the meat with faithlessness that Good would not give it to them, and [even] that he could not; therefore that is the expectation with testing.
Inflection[edit]

Forms combined with the definite article:

Combinations with possessive determiners:

  • com (1st person singular)
  • cut, cot (2nd person singular)
  • cona (3rd person singular)
Alternative forms[edit]
  • ɔ (abbreviation)
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Irish: co

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “An interrogative formation?”)

Adverb[edit]

co

  1. how?
    Co·bbia mo ḟechtas?How will my expedition be?
Usage notes[edit]

The adverb is followed by the dependent form of the verb, which is neither nasalized nor lenited.

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *kʷos, compare Proto-Slavic *kъ(n) (to, towards) (hence Russian ко (ko, to)) of similar meaning.[2]

Preposition[edit]

co (takes the accusative; triggers h-prothesis before vowels)

  1. to, toward
    • c. 700, Immram Brain, published in The Voyage of Bran son of Febal to the land of the living (1895, London: David Nutt), pp. 1-35, edited and with translations by Kuno Meyer and Alfred Nutt, stanza 45
      Olc líth do·lluid ind nathir cosin n-athir dia chathir!
      [It was] a bad day when the Serpent came to the father [Adam], to the city [in Paradise]!
    • c. 775, Táin Bó Fraích from the Book of Leinster, published in Táin bó Fraích (1974, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited by Wolfgang Meid, line 262
      "Gairid damsa Findabair!", ol sé. Do·tháet Findabair cucai, ⁊ coíca ingen impe.
      "Call Findabair over to me!" [Ailill] said. Findabair came to him, with fifty maidens around her.
  2. up to, until
  3. used with the neuter accusative singular of an adjective to form an adverb: -ly[3]
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 14d3
      cid écen aisndís do neuch as doruid co léir, ní sechmalfaider cuimre and dano
      though it is necessary to explain carefully anything that is difficult, however brevity will not be passed by
Inflection[edit]

Forms combined with the definite article:

Forms combined with the relative particle:

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

co (triggers nasalization; followed by the prototonic or conjunct form of a verb; may be followed by an infixed pronoun)

  1. until
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 21c22
      ní fitir cid muntar nime conidro·foilsigsetar apstil doib
      not even heaven’s household knew it until the apostles had revealed it to them
  2. so that
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 10d36
      co nos·berinn dochum hirisse
      that I might bring them unto faith
    Synonym: ara

For more quotations using this term, see Citations:co.

Usage notes[edit]

A leniting co that takes absolute and deuterotonic forms is also attested in the glosses only.

Descendants[edit]
  • Irish: go
  • Scottish Gaelic: gu
  • Manx: dy
Alternative forms[edit]
  • ɔ (abbreviation)

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*kom”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 213
  2. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*kʷo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 180
  3. ^ Thurneysen, Rudolf (1940, reprinted 2003)D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, →ISBN, § 381, page 239

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *čьto, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷid, *kʷis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

co

  1. what

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

particle

Related terms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

co

  1. every (referring to frequency)
    co miesiącevery month

Related terms[edit]

prefix

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • co in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • co in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan) che
  • (Sutsilvan) ca
  • (Surmiran) tgi
  • (Puter) cu

Etymology[edit]

From Latin quam or quod.

Conjunction[edit]

co

  1. (Vallader) than

Silesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *čьto, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷid, *kʷis.

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): [t͡sɔ]

Pronoun[edit]

co

  1. what

Spanish[edit]

Noun[edit]

co m (plural cos)

  1. (Aragón, colloquial) dude, friend

Related terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

co

  1. Misspelling of .

Venetian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin cum. Compare Italian con

Preposition[edit]

co

  1. with, together

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

co

  1. to shrink (to become smaller)

See also[edit]

Derived terms

West Makian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

co

  1. (transitive) to see

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of co (action verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person toco moco aco
2nd person noco foco
3rd person inanimate ico doco
animate
imperative noco, co foco, co

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[1], Pacific linguistics

Wutunhua[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Tibetan མཚོ (mtsho).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

co

  1. lake

References[edit]

  • Juha Janhunen, Marja Peltomaa, Erika Sandman, Xiawu Dongzhou (2008) Wutun (LINCOM's Descriptive Grammar Series), volume 466, LINCOM Europa, →ISBN

Yola[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English quethen, from Old English cweþan, from Proto-West Germanic *kweþan.

Verb[edit]

co

  1. quoth, saith
    • 1867, GLOSSARY OF THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY:
      Co thou; Co he.
      Quoth thou; Says he.

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith