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(feminine cóa, masculine plural cós, feminine plural cóas)

  1. Contraction of ca o: than the.
    O rei é moito máis vello presidente.
    The king is much older than the president.



  1. (colloquial, Caribbean) Alternative form of cómo



From Latin cum.


  1. when


  1. with



From Proto-Vietic *kɔːʔ (to have). Cognate with Muong cỏ.



(, , , 𣎏)

  1. to have
    Tao hai con xe.
    I have two motorbikes.
    Tôi chồng.
    I have a husband. / I'm a married woman. / I'm married.
    Nhà tôi hai con.
    I have two kids. / There are two kids in my family.
    Cậu bút chì không? Cho tớ mượn.
    Do you have a pencil? May I borrow it?
    hai người trong phòng.
    There are two people in that room.
    việc gì không ?
    Is there a problem? / Is there anything I can help you with? / What is it? / Do you have some business here?

Usage notes[edit]

  • When functioning as a full verb, indicates possession in its broadest sense. can also indicate existence, which is equivalent to "there is" or "there are". In many expressions, is simply equivalent to "to have": kinh nghiệm ("to have experience"), có hai con ("to have two children"), bạn gái / bạn trai ("to have a girlfriend / boyfriend"), etc. is also used to form idiomatic expressions; most idiomatic expressions of the " + noun" type are equivalent to English "to be + adjective": hiếu ("to be filial"), tuổi ("to be old"), etc. A number of words that contain are perceived by native speakers as whole words. has been somewhat bleached of its original meaning in such words as có khi (maybe, probably), có mặt (to be present), có thể (can, to be able), etc.

Derived terms[edit]

Derived terms


  1. (before verbs, for emphasis or intensification) do; does
    Mày không biết phải không?
    Tao biết!
    You don't know, do you?
    I do know, okay?
    Em bị mất vở! Em làm bài thầy ơi!
    I lost my workbook! I swear I did the assignment!
  2. (before verbs, in questions (generally ending in không), not before itself) do
    Bạn biết chúng ta chỉ sử dụng 10% não bộ?
    Có, và đó là chuyện nhảm nhí.
    Did you know we only use 10% of our brain?
    Yes, and that's utter nonsense.
    Anh định đi chơi đâu không?
    Are you going out?

Usage notes[edit]

The interrogative expression không forms in most cases a yes-no question and encircles the verbal and adjectival predicate. is placed in front of the verb or adjective, and không comes at the end of the sentence. The word order is: subject + + predicate + không? In informal communication, can be omitted.

Mấy đứa bạn anh hay đi phượt hông?Do your friends often go on road trips on motorbikes?
Anh khoẻ không?How are you?

The interrogative expression có phảikhông also forms a yes-no question and encircles the nominal predicate and the predicate expressed by của. When encircling the nominal predicate, the equative (or linking) verb is used. When encircling the predicate expressed by của, then is optional.

Các bạn anh có phải sinh viên không?Are your friends students?
Cái máy vi tính này có phải (là) của bạn anh không?Does this computer belong to your friend?

For an affirmative response to a có phảikhông question, vâng is used at the beginning of the response as well. The negative reply may begin with either không or không phải.


(, , , 𣎏)

  1. yes; yes, I do
    Bạn có biết chúng ta chỉ sử dụng 10% não bộ?
    , và đó là chuyện nhảm nhí.
    Did you know we only use 10% of our brain?
    Yes, and that's utter nonsense.
    Các bạn có muốn được nghỉ sớm không?
    Do you want to go home early?
    Heck yeah!
  2. (in response to a roll call) here; I'm here; present


(, , , 𣎏)

  1. (colloquial) only
    Synonym: chỉ
    Mua hai cuốn sách thôi mà có gì ghê?
    Eh, I bought just two books, that's nothing much.
    Chạy xíu mà than với chả thở.
    Quit nagging after running just a little bit.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Unlike chỉ, in the sense of "only" is placed after the verb.

See also[edit]