yn

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See also: YN, yN, -yn, yn-, and ŷn

Manx[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish in (compare Scottish Gaelic and Irish an).

Article[edit]

yn

  1. the

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English inn.

Noun[edit]

yn

  1. Alternative form of in (inn)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English in.

Preposition[edit]

yn

  1. Alternative form of in (in)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old English inne.

Adverb[edit]

yn

  1. Alternative form of in (in)

Middle Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle[edit]

yn

  1. grammatical particle used in conjunction with bot (to be) to mark adjectival, nominal, or verbal complements
  2. grammatical particle used to change an adjective into an adverb

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *ɨn, from Proto-Celtic *eni.

Preposition[edit]

yn

  1. in

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms[edit]

Determiner[edit]

yn

  1. our
Descendants[edit]
  • Welsh: ein

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Specialized use of yn (in). The lack of nasal mutation probably stems from a lost article or possessive pronoun qualifying the verbal noun.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ’n (used after a vowel)

Particle[edit]

yn

  1. grammatical particle used in conjunction with bod (to be) to mark adjectival, nominal, or verbal predicate complements
    Mae Tom yn darllen.
    Tom is reading.
    Mae Tom yn gysglyd.
    Tom is sleepy.
    Mae Tom yn fachgen.
    Tom is a boy.
  2. grammatical particle used to change an adjective into an adverb
    yn ddawell
    yn fawrgreatly
    yn wirtruly
Usage notes[edit]
  • This particle triggers soft mutation, except for on words beginning with ⟨rh⟩ and ⟨ll⟩, of anything substantival, namely nouns, adjectives, numerals and verbal nouns used substantivally.
  • It triggers no mutation on anything verbal, which in practice means verbal nouns used verbally.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Welsh yn, from Old Welsh in, from Proto-Brythonic *ɨn, from Proto-Celtic *eni, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁én.

Alternative forms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

yn

  1. in, at (definite nouns)
    Mae hi'n byw yng Nghaerdydd.
    She lives in Cardiff.
    Ydyn ni'n astudio yn y Brifysgol ym Mangor.
    We're studying at the University in Bangor.
    Roedd hi'n bwrw eira ym mis Mawrth.
    It was snowing in March.
    Mae'r llyfr yn (y) Gymraeg.
    The book is in Welsh.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This particle triggers nasal mutation. Before ⟨p⟩, ⟨b⟩ and sometimes ⟨m⟩, it becomes ym and before ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩, it becomes yng. In certain informal contexts or dialects, it may trigger soft or no mutation at all.
  • Yn is used with definite nouns and noun phrases, its indefinite equivalent being mewn.
Inflection[edit]

(Literary)

(Colloquial)

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “yn”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

West Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian in, from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en.

Preposition[edit]

yn

  1. in
  2. into

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • yn”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Yola[edit]

Preposition[edit]

yn

  1. Alternative form of i (in)
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, line 9:
      Yn ercha an aul o' while yt beeth wi gleezom o' core
      In each and every condition it is with joy of heart

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 114