تو

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See also: پو‎, بو, and Appendix:Variations of "tu"

Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

In the sense of a knot from Persian تو(, twist). In the sense of having been just a borrowing from Egyptian Arabic تَوّ(taww) in its meaning, also Hassaniya تو(tow, instant), Marazīq Tunisian Arabic تاو(tâu, moment), in view of Sabaean 𐩻𐩥(ṯw, until) borrowed from Old South Arabian, in its more original meaning present in Andalusian Arabic ثَو ذَا (ṯaw ḏā) or تَو ذَا (taw ḏā, until now) and Yemeni Arabic تَو(taw, in front of), and following this prepositional character still most notorious with personal suffixes. Possibly corresponding to سَوْفَ(sawfa) and Ge'ez ሶበ (sobä), ሶቤ (sobe, when).

Noun[edit]

تَوّ (tawwm (plural أَتْوَاء(ʾatwāʾ))

  1. (obsolete) a knot, a twist or contortion in a rope; a rope that is twisted of a single strand
  2. instantaneousness, immediacy, onlyness, the having been present just i.e. recently and/or alone

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Though parsing as a noun, the sense of an “instance” is of restricted use, often in the adverbial accusative تَوًّا(tawwan, just; in a bit), and in prepositional phrases فِي التَوِّ (fī t-tawwi) and لِلتَّوِّ (li-t-tawwi) which latter in particular also takes personal suffixes instead of the article, for the findability of which constructions this dictionary entry renders the following table:

Inflection[edit]
    Inflected forms
Base form لِتَوِّ(litawwi)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person لِتَوِّي(litawwī) لِتَوِّنَا(litawwinā)
Second person لِتَوِّكَ(litawwika) لِتَوِّكِ(litawwiki) لِتَوِّكُمَا(litawwikumā) لِتَوِّكُمْ(litawwikum) لِتَوِّكُنَّ(litawwikunna)
Third person لِتَوِّهِ(litawwihi) لِتَوِّهَا(litawwihā) لِتَوِّهِمَا(litawwihimā) لِتَوِّهِمْ(litawwihim) لِتَوِّهِنَّ(litawwihinna)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Corriente, F. (1997) A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 1 The Near and Middle East; 29)‎[1], Leiden, New York, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, LCCN 96052434, page 81b
  • Corriente, Federico (2008), “Additions and corrections to A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic”, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes[2], volume 98, page 41
  • Freytag, Georg (1830), “تو”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 1, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 203a
  • Lane, Edward William (1863), “تو”, in Arabic-English Lexicon, London: Williams & Norgate, page 320–321
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “تو”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 146a

Malay[edit]

Determiner[edit]

تو (tu)

  1. Arabic spelling of tu (that (what is being indicated))

Pronoun[edit]

تو (tu)

  1. Arabic spelling of tu (that (that thing))

Persian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Persian [script needed] (LK /tō/, you, thou), from Old Persian (compare 𐎬𐎺𐎶 (tuvam)), from Proto-Iranian *tuHám (compare Northern Kurdish tu, Pashto ته(), Avestan 𐬙𐬏𐬨(tūm)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *tuHám, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

Dari Persian تو
Iranian Persian
Tajik ту (tu)

تو (to)

  1. you, thou (informal, singular)
  2. (generally with following را) you, thee
  3. (at the end of an ezafe) your, thy
Usage notes[edit]
  • The form تو را (to râ) may be contracted into ترا(torâ), both of which are pronounced the same, however.
See also[edit]
  • شما(formal, polite, and grammatically plural)

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

تو (tav, tow) (archaic)

  1. pool, puddle

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

تو () (archaic)

  1. fold, twist, turn

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

تو (tu)

  1. inside; interior
  2. (In some dialects as Luri) room, especially an outdoor room (Synonymous with Tehrani Persian اتاق which is of Turkic origin)

Preposition[edit]

تو (tu)

  1. in; inside
Usage notes[edit]
  • May be construed with or without ezafe.

Adverb[edit]

تو (tu)

  1. inside

Adjective[edit]

تو (tu)

  1. within; interior; inner

Southwestern Fars[edit]

Noun[edit]

تو (tow)

  1. (Masarm, Deh Sarv) fever

Urdu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Sauraseni Apabhramsa तुहुं (tuhũ), from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀢𑀼𑀫𑀁 (tumaṃ), 𑀢𑀼𑀁 (tuṃ), from Sanskrit त्वम् (tvam).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

تُو () (plural تم, Hindi spelling तू)

  1. (informal, intimate, contemptuous, possibly vulgar) second-person singular subjective personal pronoun: you, thou; Early Modern English thou.
  2. (dialectal, literary, religion) second-person singular subjective personal pronoun, intimate or very polite: thou
    اے خدا تو ہی میرا مددگار ہے!‎‎
    ai xudā -hī merā madadgār hai!
    O God, only thou art my helper!
Usage notes[edit]
  • تو is least formal way of expressing "you" in Urdu and is used when addressing those of much lower social status or those one has a close enough relationship with to justify the reduced formality. Because the less formal forms could offend others, آپ is the safest way to express "you" unless there is reason to be less formal, where تم would be appropriate. The usage of تو varies. In some cases speakers would use it to refer to babies or children or even close friends, while others would use it only to refer to those they consider socially inferior, and some consider its use for people to be very rude in any situation. However تو, when used to address deities reflects a sense of reverence and closeness commensurate with the lack of formalities.

Determiner[edit]

تُو (sg (plural تم‎, Hindi spelling तू‎)

  1. (informal, intimate, contemptuous, possibly vulgar) the individual spoken or written to; you, thou, Early Modern English thou.

Declension[edit]


See also[edit]

  • تم(tum) - semiformal, familiar, grammatically plural
  • آپ(āp) - formal, polite, grammatically plural
Urdu personal pronouns
Person Description Direct case Indirect case Ergative case Dative/Accusative case
1st person singular مَیں(ma͠i) مجھ(mujh) میں نے(ma͠i-ne) مجھ کو(mujh-ko),

مجھے(mujhe)

plural ہم(ham) ہم نے(ham-ne) ہم کو(ham-ko),

ہمیں(hamẽ)

2nd person informal (intimate) تُو () تجھ(tujh) تو نے(tū-ne) تجھ کو(tujh-ko),

تجھے(tujhe)

semiformal (familiar) تم(tum) تم نے(tum-ne) تم کو(tum-ko),

تمہیں(tumhẽ)

formal (polite) آپ(āp) آپ نے(āp-ne) آپ کو(āp-ko)
3rd person proximal singular / informal یہ(ye) اِس(is) اِس نے(is-ne) اِس کو(is-ko),

اِسے(ise)

plural / formal اِن(in) اِنہوں نے(inhõ-ne) اِن کو(in-ko),

اِنہیں(inhẽ)

distal singular / informal وہ(vo) اُس(us) اُس نے(us-ne) اُس کو(us-ko),

اُسے(use)

plural / formal اُن(un) اُنہوں نے(unhõ-ne) اُن کو(un-ko),

اُنہیں(unhẽ)

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit, probably from Sanskrit ततस् (tatas, from there).

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

تو (to) (Hindi spelling तो)

  1. then

References[edit]