Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/de

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Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*de ~ *do or *-de ~ *-do[1]

  1. Emphatic or contrastive particle, and, but[2]
  2. Postpositive demonstrative particle, towards[2][3]

Usage notes[edit]

The particle in Proto-Indo-European experienced ablaut between *de and *do but was otherwise indeclinable. Some daughter languages, particularly Italic, added pronominal inflection later, as also occurred with particles *ḱe, *h₁ew, and *ǵʰe.[4]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 183
  2. 2.0 2.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, §17.3, page 249
  3. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, first edition, Oxford: Blackwell, §7.27, page 135
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “-dam, -dē, -dō, -dum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  5. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*dī”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 97
  6. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “δή”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 322
  7. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “endo, indu(-), indi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 189
  8. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἔνδον”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 421-422
  9. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*do”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 109
  10. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*do”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 102
  11. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “δέ”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 307
  12. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “-δε”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 307
  13. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “-de”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 162