何時

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See also: 何时

Chinese[edit]

 
carry; what; how; why; which
 
o'clock; time; when; hour; season; period
trad. (何時)
simp. (何时)

Pronunciation[edit]


Pronoun[edit]

何時

  1. (literary) when; what time
    不知何時相見 [MSC, trad.]
    不知何时相见 [MSC, simp.]
    Ài, wǒ bùzhī héshí zài néng yǔ tā xiāngjiàn. [Pinyin]
    Alas, I do not know when I will see him again.

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

The presence of other Old Japanese indefinites beginning with (i) suggests a possible shared root of (i, possibly “what” or “which”), as in 如何 (ikaga, how), 何処 (izuko, where), 幾ら (ikura, how many, how much).

Likely cognate with eastern Old Japanese word idu (modern idzu or izu, “where”), still used in modern Japanese as part of the word いずれ (izure, which).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

何時 (hiragana いつ, rōmaji itsu)

  1. when, which day
Usage notes[edit]

Itsu is most often spelled in hiragana as いつ. Itsu is more commonly used to mean when in terms of dates or days, while nanji is more commonly used to mean when in terms of time of day.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
なん
Grade: 2

Grade: 2
yutōyomi

Compound of (nan, what) +‎ (ji, hour). The nan portion is from Old Japanese (nani, what), while the ji portion is a borrowing from Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

何時 (hiragana なんじ, rōmaji nanji)

  1. what time, when
     (いま) (なん) ()ですか?
    Ima nanji desu ka?
    What time is it right now?
Usage notes[edit]

Nanji is often spelled in kanji. Nanji is more commonly used to mean when in terms of time of day, while itsu is more commonly used to mean when in terms of dates or days.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
なん
Grade: 2
とき > どき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Compound of Old Japanese elements (nan, what) +‎ (toki, time).[1][3] The toki changes to doki as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

何時 (hiragana なんどき, rōmaji nandoki)

  1. (dated) what time, when
Usage notes[edit]

Use is more limited than nanji or itsu. Most commonly found in set phrase いつなんどき (itsu nandoki), comparable to English phrase “when and at what time”, but only used when expressing ignorance, never used in questions.[1]

May sound old-fashioned.[3][5]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3705), text here
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN