古い

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
旧い (uncommon)
故い (rare)

Etymology[edit]

From Old Japanese. Attested in the Man'yōshū completed in 759.[1]

In turn, derived from verb 旧る (furu, to age, to become older, said of both things and people) + (shi, Old and Classical Japanese adjective-forming suffix),[2] with the verb itself also attested in the Man'yōshū.[1][2]

The modern form furui emerged as a regular shift from furuki, the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) of classical adjective 古し (furushi).

⟨puruki1 → */purukʲi//furui/

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "古い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 古く るく
[fúꜜrùkù]
[fùrúꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 古い [fùrúꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 古い [fùrúꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 古くない るくない
くない
[fúꜜrùkùnàì]
[fùrúꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 古かった るかった
かった
[fúꜜrùkàttà]
[fùrúꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 古くなかった るくなかった
くなかった
[fúꜜrùkùnàkàttà]
[fùrúꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 古いです いです [fùrúꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 古くて るくて
くて
[fúꜜrùkùtè]
[fùrúꜜkùtè]
Conditional 古ければ るければ
ければ
[fúꜜrùkèrèbà]
[fùrúꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective[edit]

(ふる) (furui-i (adverbial (ふる) (furuku))

  1. [from 759] (not of a person) old, aged, antiquated
    (わたし)以前(いぜん)(ふる)ロールスロイスを()っていた。
    Watashi wa izen furui Rōrusu-Roisu o motte ita.
    I used to own an old Rolls-Royce.
    (わたし)(ふる)ランプを()った。
    Watashi wa furui ranpu o katta.
    I bought an old lamp.

Inflection[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ 1960, Tetsuo Hirayama (平山輝男, editor), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary), (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN