hoodlum

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in a December 1866[1] Daily Alta California article, which mentions "the 'Hoodlum Gang' of juvenile thieves".[2] Several possible origins have been proposed. It may derive from a Germanic word like Swabian hudelum (disorderly)[1][3] or Bavarian Haderlump (ragamuffin).[4]

Herbert Asbury's book The Barbary Coast: An Informal History of the San Francisco Underworld (1933, A. A. Knopf, New York) says the word originated in San Francisco from a particular street gang's call to unemployed Irishmen to "huddle 'em" (to beat up Chinese migrants), after which San Francisco newspapers took to calling street gangs "hoodlums".

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈhuːdləm/, /ˈhʊdləm/
  • Hyphenation: hood‧lum

Noun[edit]

hoodlum (plural hoodlums)

  1. A gangster; a hired thug.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:criminal
  2. A rough or violent youth.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:troublemaker

Usage notes[edit]

  • A nonstandard, jocular plural hoodla (treating the word like a Latin noun) also exists.

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 hoodlum” in Merriam–Webster Online Dictionary.
  2. ^ Daily Alta California, December 15, 1866: "a dealerf in second-hand clothing [...] was arrested, yesterday [...] on the charges of receiving stolen goods from the "Hoodlum Gang" of juvenile thieves"
  3. ^ hoodlum” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  4. ^ hoodlum” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • “Frederick Bee History Project”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed October 4, 2014