From Ptolemy's Ancient Greek Σῖναι (Sînai) of uncertain etymology, but probably from Sanskrit चीन (cīna, “China”), possibly via Arabic اَلصِّين (aṣ-ṣīn, “China; the Chinese”) and usually held to derive from Old Chinese 秦 (*Dzin, “Qin”). See "Names of China" at Wikipedia.
- (culture) The Chinese, specifically:
- (Classical Latin) The southern Chinese: the Cantonese, Vietnamese, and other Yue peoples reached via the maritime Silk Road to Panyu (Guangzhou), not known at the time to be related to the Seres reached by the overland route to Chang'an (Xi'an).
- (New Latin) The Chinese people: the Han Chinese or citizens of China.
- (geography) The land of the Chinese, specifically: