ござる

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Japanese[edit]

Alternative spelling 御座る

Etymology[edit]

Shift from ござある.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ɡo̞za̠ɾɯ̟ᵝ]
  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "ござる"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
ござる [gòzáꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) - - -
Key constructions
Passive ござられる ざられ [gòzáráréꜜrù]
Causative ござらせる ざらせ [gòzáráséꜜrù]
Potential - - -
Volitional ござろう ざろ [gòzáróꜜò]
Negative ござらない ざらない [gòzáráꜜnàì]
Negative perfective ござらなかった ざらなかった [gòzáráꜜnàkàttà]
Formal ござります ざりま [gòzárímáꜜsù]
Perfective ござった った [gòzáꜜttà]
Conjunctive ござって って [gòzáꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional ござれば れば [gòzáꜜrèbà]

Verb[edit]

ござる (intransitive, irregular conjugation, rōmaji gozaru)

  1. (archaic) to exist, to be, to have

Usage notes[edit]

In classical Japanese, ござる (gozaru) was the polite form of ある (aru) applicable to both animate and inanimate objects. It survives in modern Japanese only in the inflected forms ございました (gozaimashita), ございましたら (gozaimashitara), ございます (gozaimasu), and です (desu), originally a contraction of でございます (de gozaimasu). (go-) is a politeness prefix, (za) is the equivalent of ある (aru) in Sino-Japanese, and finally (-ru) is a suffix for verbs. Another opinion is that it is a contraction of ござある (gozaaru), composed of 御座 (goza, noble seat) and ある (aru, to exist, literally to be on a noble seat).

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN