昨日

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Chinese[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

yesterday
 
day; sun; date
day; sun; date; day of the month; Japan (abbrev.)
simp. and trad.
(昨日)
anagram 日昨


Note: zok6 jat6 - prescribed.
Note:
  • za2 rig8 - Chaozhou, Shantou;
  • za1 rig8 - Chenghai, Johor Bahru;
  • zao1 rig8 - Jieyang.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1 1/1
    Initial () (15) (38)
    Final () (103) (48)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zɑk̚/ /ȵiɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zɑk̚/ /ȵit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɑk̚/ /ȵʑjet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zak̚/ /ȵit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zɑk̚/ /ȵiĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zɑk̚/ /ȵʑĭĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱɑk̚/ /ȵʑi̯ĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zuó

    Noun[edit]

    昨日

    1. (formal or dialectal) yesterday
    Synonyms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic (昨日):
    • Japanese: 昨日(さくじつ) (sakujitsu)
    • Korean: 작일 (昨日, jagil)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    yesterday
     
    day; sun; date
    day; sun; date; day of the month; Japan (abbrev.)
    simp. and trad.
    (昨日)
    alternative forms 佐日
    anagram 日昨

    Noun[edit]

    昨日

    1. (Min) day before yesterday
      𪜶翁仔某昨日出國𨑨迌 [Hokkien, trad.]
      𪜶翁仔某昨日出国𨑨迌 [Hokkien, simp.]
      In nn̄g ang-á-bó͘ cho̍h--ji̍t tō chhut-kok khì chhit-thô--ah. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      The husband and wife went out of the country the day before yesterday to play.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きのう
    Grade: 4 Grade: 1
    jukujikun

    /ki no pu//kinoɸu/ → */kinowu//kinou//kinoː/

    From Old Japanese. The initial ki is unclear, but is likely the same ki element that appears in other words pertaining to the past. This may be related to the now-obsolete auxiliary verb (ki) indicating the recollective past -- see けり (keri). The middle no appears to be the regular genitive particle (no). The final pu is an apophonic form of (hi, day),[1] also found in 今日 (kepu→kyō, today).

    The kanji are orthographic borrowing from Chinese 昨日.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    昨日(きのう) (kinō (historical kana きのふ)

    1. yesterday
      昨日(きのう)東京(とうきょう)(くも)りでしたか。
      Kinō, Tōkyō wa kumori deshita ka.
      Was it cloudy in Tokyo yesterday?

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さく
    Grade: 4
    じつ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese compound 昨日 (dzak nyit, literally yesterday + day ). Compare modern Cantonese reading zok6 jat6.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    昨日(さくじつ) (sakujitsu

    1. yesterday

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きそ
    Grade: 4 Grade: 1
    jukujikun
    Alternative spelling
    昨夜

    From Old Japanese. The initial ki is unclear, but is likely the same ki element that appears in other words pertaining to the past. This may be related to the now-obsolete auxiliary verb (ki) indicating the recollective past -- see けり (keri). The final so is also unclear, but is probably the same as the final zo in 去年(こぞ) (kozo).[1]

    This may have been read as kizo in Old Japanese.[1][3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    昨日(きそ) (kiso

    1. last night
    2. yesterday
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    (Time)
    ~ -2 -1 0 +1 +2 Continual
    Day 一昨日 昨日 今日 明日 明後日 毎日
    Morning 一昨朝 昨朝 今朝 明朝 毎朝
    Night 一昨晩 昨晩 今晩 明晩 毎晩
    Week 先々週 先週 今週 来週 再来週 毎週
    Month 先々月 先月 今月 来月 再来月 毎月
    Year 一昨年 去年 今年 来年 再来年 毎年

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN