居る

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
kun’yomi

/wiru//iru/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon Shoki, completed around 720 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

居る (intransitive, ichidan conjugation, hiragana いる, rōmaji iru, historical hiragana ゐる)

  1. (of animate objects) to exist, to be
    あなたがいない (なに)もできない
    anata ga inai to nani mo dekinai
    I can't do anything if you aren't there
  2. (of animate objects) to have
    彼氏 (かれし)いますか?
    Kareshi imasu ka?
    Do you have a boyfriend?
  3. (after a verb in the て conjunctive form) to be (doing); indicates a progressive or continuous sense; See ている
     (あさ) (はん) ()べていますか?
    Asagohan o tabete imasu ka?
    Are you eating breakfast?
Usage notes[edit]
Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
kun’yomi

/woru//oru/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[3]

Listed in some sources[1][2] as derived from the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) wi of verb wiru (see above) + ある (aru). The conjugation paradigm for woru is indeed the same as aru for Classical and Old Japanese. However, the compounded wiaru form would ordinarily become yaru or eru via historical phonetic change, and the vowel shift to /o/ is unexplainable in this hypothesis.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

居る (intransitive, godan conjugation, hiragana おる, rōmaji oru, historical hiragana をる)

  1. (of animate objects) to exist, to be, to have
    • むかしあるところに一人 (ひとり) (よく)ばりの (ぼう)さんがおりました。[1]
      Mukashi aru tokoro ni hitori no yokubari no bōsan ga orimashita.
      Once upon a time, there was a grasping priest somewhere.
  2. (after a verb in the て conjunctive form) to be (doing): indicates a progressive or continuous sense; the verb ending -ておる (-te oru) is often contracted to とる (-toru)
    • ぼくは ()をほそめて (うみ) ()おった[2]
      Boku wa me o hosomete umi o miteotta
      I was staring at the sea with a squinted eye
  3. (Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu, after a verb in the conjunctive form) to be (doing); a continuous sense; often transformed to よる (yoru)
    • 毎朝 (まいあさ) (わたし)観音様 (かんのんさま)にお (がん) ()よるんじゃものきっと (とお)るわ。[3]
      Maiasa, watashi, Kannon-sama ni o-gan o kakeyoru n ja mono kitto tōru wa.
      Since I am making a wish to Kannon every morning, he will certainly pass his exams.
Usage notes[edit]
  • A variation of いる (iru) used mainly in western Japan.
  • In standard Japanese, it is usually used in humble language (謙譲語) or polite language (丁寧語) as おります form or in certain archaic/literary expressions.
Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 886), text here