Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

In earlier, animacy-based two-gender Proto-Indo-European, *so was the animate demonstrative. Once the gender system was established, *seh₂ was created, with the feminine suffix *-h₂; *tod was the inanimate demonstrative in two-gender Proto-Indo-European and was later used as a neuter demonstrative.

Pronoun[edit]

*só

  1. this
  2. that

Inflection[edit]

Thematic pronominal
masculine feminine
nominative *só *séh₂
genitive *tósyo *tósyeh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *só *tóh₁ *tóy
accusative *tóm *tóh₁ *tóms
genitive *tósyo *? *tóysoHom
ablative *tósmead *? *tóymos
dative *tósmey *? *tóymos
locative *tósmi *? *tóysu
instrumental *tónoh₁ *? *tṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *séh₂ *? *téh₂es
accusative *tā́m *? *téh₂m̥s
genitive *tósyeh₂s *? *téh₂soHom
ablative *tósyeh₂s *? *téh₂mos
dative *tósyeh₂ey *? *téh₂mos
locative *tósyeh₂ *? *téh₂su
instrumental *téh₂(e)h₁ *? *téh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *tód *tóy *téh₂
accusative *tód *tóy *téh₂
genitive *tósyo *? *tóysoHom
ablative *tósmead *? *tóymos
dative *tósmey *? *tóymos
locative *tósmi *? *tóysu
instrumental *tónoh₁ *? *tṓys

Derived terms[edit]

  • *to-ti-
    • Italic:
      • Latin: tot
    • Indo-Iranian
  • *to-ty-o-
  • *teh₂-wot
  • *s-ih₂

Descendants[edit]

  1. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[1] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 179