und

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See also: und- and Und

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • vnd (alternative typography) [16th C.]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English unde (a wave), from either the Old French unde or Latin unda (wave).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

und (plural unds)

  1. (obsolete, rare) A wave.
  2. (heraldry) A billow- or wave-like marking.

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Bavarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German unde, from Old High German unti, from Proto-West Germanic, from Proto-Germanic *andi. Cognates include German und and Luxembourgish an.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Vienna) IPA(key): /ˈunt/
  • Hyphenation: und

Conjunction[edit]

und

  1. (Vienna) and
    • 1938, Josef Weinheber, Wien wörtlich, Sieg der Provinz:
      I waaß net, es gibt so vü' Dichter in Wien,
      und ålle geehrt und berühmt.
      I didn't know there were so many poets in Vienna,
      and all honorable and famous.
    Du und i.You and I.

References[edit]

  • Maria Hornung; Sigmar Grüner (2002), “und”, in Wörterbuch der Wiener Mundart, 2nd edition, ÖBV & HPT

Estonian[edit]

Noun[edit]

und

  1. partitive singular of uni

German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German unde, from Old High German unti, from Proto-Germanic *andi *anþi, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti. Compare Dutch en, English and, Danish end.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ʊnt/, [(ʔ)ʊnt] (standard)
    • IPA(key): /ən/, [n̩] (in numbers from 21 to 99, alternative de-facto standard)
    • IPA(key): /ʊn/, [(ʔ)ʊn] (in other contexts, colloquial)
  • (file)

Conjunction[edit]

und

  1. (co-ordinating) and
    Kaffee und Kuchencoffee and cake
    Ich kam, sah und siegte.I came, saw, and conquered.
    • 1904, Rudolf Eisler, Wörterbuch der philosophischen Begriffe, Berlin, volume 1, sub verbo Ich, page 446-457:
      "Das »Ich = Ich« ist die ursprünglichste Erkenntnis, die Urquelle alles Denkens [..], es bedeutet »erstens die rein logische Identität von Subject und Object im Acte des reinen Selbstbewußtseins, zweitens die reale metaphysische Identität des setzenden absoluten Ich und des gesetzten begrenzten Ich, und drittens die zeitliche Identität des Ich in zwei rasch aufeinander folgenden Zeitpunkten« [...]."
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  2. (colloquial) links two nouns, often a person and an activity, in rhetoric questions to express an opposition between them
    Er und Abwaschen? Vielleicht einmal im Jahr!
    Him doing the dishes? Maybe once per year!

Usage notes[edit]

  • As seen in the second example, commas are never used before und in enumerations, even where some English style guides prescribe this.
  • Commas are used before und (and oder) in complex sentences when a subclause intervenes. Compare:
Er erklärte, dass er den Vorschlag gutheiße, und bat um Zustimmung. (und continues the main clause)
He declared that he approved of the proposal, and asked for endorsement.
Er erklärte, dass er den Vorschlag gutheiße und um Zustimmung bitte. (und continues the subclause)
He declared that he approved of the proposal and (that he) asked for endorsement.
  • Commes are optional when und connects two complete sentences (i.e. when a full stop could be used instead of the conjunction):
Der Fischer fischt[,] und der Jäger jagt.The fisherman fishes and the hunter hunts.

Interjection[edit]

und

  1. so?, now?, and?
    Und? Wie ist es gelaufen?
    So? How did it go?

Further reading[edit]

  • und” in Duden online
  • und” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • Friedrich Kluge (1883), “und”, in John Francis Davis, transl., Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, published 1891

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

und

  1. Romanization of 𐌿𐌽𐌳

Hungarian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

un +‎ -d

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

und

  1. second-person singular subjunctive present definite of un

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse und, from Proto-Germanic *wundō.

Noun[edit]

und f (genitive singular undar, nominative plural undir)

  1. (poetic) wound
Declension[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Apocopated form of undir.

Preposition[edit]

und

  1. (poetic) under

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Shortened form of undir

Preposition[edit]

und

  1. under
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *wundō (wound).

Noun[edit]

und f (genitive undar, plural undir)

  1. (poetic) wound
Declension[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Icelandic: und
  • Old Swedish: und
  • Danish: vunde (influenced by Low German)

References[edit]

  • und”, in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Old Saxon[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

und (with accusative)

  1. until

Conjunction[edit]

und

  1. until