Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*per-

  1. before, in front
  2. first

Derived terms[edit]

  • *pr-eh₂-
  • *pr-ó, *pr-óH (allative)
  • *pér-i (locative)
    • Proto-Albanian: *per(i)
    • Proto-Armenian: [Term?]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *per
    • Proto-Germanic: *firi- (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
      • Ancient Greek: περί (perí), πέρ (pér) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pári
    • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
      • Latin: per (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr-é-ti, *pr-ó-ti
  • *pr-e-ti-o-
    • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
      • Latin: pretium (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr-és
  • *pr-éy (dative)
  • *pr-ey-wo-
    • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
  • *pr-i-yōs
    • Proto-Italic: *priōs
      • Latin: prior (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr-i-is
  • *pr-i-is-m̥mos
  • *pr-i-is-ḱo-
  • *pr-i-is-tn̥-o- (with *ten-)
    • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
      • Latin: prīstinus (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr-i-n-
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
  • *per-nóy
    • Proto-Germanic: *ferrai (see there for further descendants)
  • *pér-o-
  • *pr̥-
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
    • Proto-Italic: *por-
  • *pŕ̥-to-
    • Proto-Germanic: *furþą (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr̥-tero-
    • Proto-Germanic: *furþeraz
      • Proto-West Germanic: *furþar (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-
    • Proto-Armenian: [Term?]
      • Old Armenian: առ (aṙ)
  • *pr-is-to-
    • Proto-Germanic: *furistaz (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr-u-
  • *por-so-
  • *pér-uti (last year) (with *wet- (year))
Unsorted formations
  • Proto-Germanic: *frumô (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pratʰamás (see there for further descendants)

Root[edit]

*per- (perhaps related to previous root, as "front" > "go forth")

  1. to go through
  2. to carry forth, fare

Derived terms[edit]

  • *pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s
  • *por-ti (o-grade root present)
    • Proto-Germanic: *faraną (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
    • Proto-Tocharian: [Term?]
  • *pí-por-ti (o-grade reduplicated present)
  • *pér-ye-ti (ye-present)
  • *per-eh₂-yé-ti
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
      • Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō) (see there for further descendants)
  • *por-éye-ti (causative)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
      • Proto-Slavic: *pariti (see there for further descendants)
      • ? Proto-Slavic: *pьrati (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *farjaną (to carry, to ferry), *farjǭ (ferry) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *fōrijaną (to lead) (formed from primary *faraną) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pāráyati
  • *pór-mo-s
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *parmas
      • Proto-Slavic: *pormъ (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *farmaz (load, fare) (see there for further descendants)
  • *pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti
  • *pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti
  • *pér-tu-s (crossing)
  • *por-teh₂
  • *por-ti-s
    • Proto-Germanic: *fardiz (journey) (see there for further descendants)
  • *pōr-i-s
    • Proto-Germanic: *fōriz (passable) (see there for further descendants)
  • *por-o-
  • *por-dʰmo-
  • Unsorted formations
    • Proto-Albanian: *p(e)rē-(n-)
      • Albanian: prura (bring (along), lead (up/forward))
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: [Term?]
      • Lithuanian: paramà f (support, help, noun)

Root[edit]

*per- (perhaps related to previous root, as "go forth" > "try"/"risk")

  1. to try, dare, risk

Derived terms[edit]

Root[edit]

*per- (or *perH-)

  1. to sell

Derived terms[edit]

Unsorted formations:

  • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
  • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
    • Latin: pars (see there for further descendants)
    • Latin: portiō (see there for further descendants)
    • ? Latin: pār (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “akwam-pere”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 4