estar

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Aragonese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand), from PIE *steh₂-.

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): [esˈtar]

Verb[edit]

estar

  1. to be

Conjugation[edit]

⠀⠀⠀⠀Impersonal forms
Infinitive estar⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Gerund estando⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Particles ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀estau m, estada f, estaus m pl, estadas f pl u estato m, estata f estatos, m pl, estatas f pl⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
⠀⠀⠀Personal forms
Indicative yo él/ella nusatros/as busatros/as ellos/as
Present ⠀⠀⠀⠀soi ⠀⠀⠀⠀yes ⠀⠀⠀⠀ye ⠀⠀⠀⠀semos ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀soz ⠀⠀⠀⠀son
Imperfect ⠀⠀⠀⠀yera ⠀⠀⠀⠀yeras ⠀⠀⠀⠀yera ⠀⠀⠀⠀yéranos ⠀⠀⠀⠀yeraz ⠀⠀⠀⠀yeran
⠀Simple past⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀estié ⠀⠀⠀⠀estiés ⠀⠀⠀⠀estió ⠀⠀⠀⠀estiemos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estiez ⠀⠀⠀⠀estioron
Future ⠀⠀⠀⠀estaré ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarás ⠀⠀⠀⠀estará ⠀⠀⠀⠀estaremos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarez ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarán
⠀Conditional⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarba ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarbas ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarba ⠀⠀⠀⠀estárbanos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarbaz ⠀⠀⠀⠀estarban
Subjunctive yo él/ella nusatros/as busatros/as ellos/as
Present ⠀⠀⠀⠀siga ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigas ⠀⠀⠀⠀siga ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigamos ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigaz ⠀⠀⠀⠀sigan
Imperfect ⠀⠀⠀⠀estase ⠀⠀⠀⠀estases ⠀⠀⠀⠀estase ⠀⠀⠀⠀estásenos ⠀⠀⠀⠀estasez ⠀⠀⠀⠀estasen
Imperative yo él/ella nusatros/as busatros/as ellos/as
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀- ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀sé ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀- ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀- ⠀⠀⠀⠀sez ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀-


Usage notes[edit]

Contrary to other Iberian languages, Aragonese only makes use of a verb "to be", this means there is no such verb as "ser" or alike.


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand). Compare Occitan estar and Old French ester. Where the velar infix that is characteristic for the second conjugation comes from is unknown.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present estic, past participle estat)

  1. (transitive, copulative) to be; to currently be in a state or have a characteristic (Used to connect a noun to an adjective that describes a temporary state of being.)
    Estic cansada.I am tired.
  2. (auxiliary) Used to form the continuous aspect, together with a present participle.
    Ja està dormint.He is already sleeping.
  3. (intransitive, +adverbial phrase) To be located (to be in a place)
    La Torre Eiffel està a París.The Eiffel Tower is in Paris.

Usage notes[edit]

This is one of two verbs that can be translated as to be, the other being ser/ésser. Ser/ésser indicates something that is inherent and not expected to change, whereas estar describes temporary qualities that apply only at a particular time. Ser/ésser relates to estar as essence relates to state, etymologically as well as semantically.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Franco-Provençal[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from Latin stō, stāre (to stand, to be (location)).

Verb[edit]

estar

  1. to be (location, state, status)

Conjugation[edit]

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese estar, from Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present estou, first-person singular preterite estiven, past participle estado)

  1. to be

Usage notes[edit]

Like Portuguese and Spanish, Galician has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”. The verb ser relates to essence, origin, or physical description. In contrast, the verb estar relates to current state or position.

Conjugation[edit]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]


Ladino[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand).

Verb[edit]

estar (Latin spelling)

  1. to be, be present

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

·estar

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive conjunct of ithid

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
·estar unchanged ·n-estar
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Old Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Medieval Spain) IPA(key): /es.ˈtaɾ/, /ˈstaɾ/

Verb[edit]

estar

  1. to be

Conjugation[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Galician: estar
  • Portuguese: estar

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese estar, from Latin stāre (stand), present active infinitive of stō (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-. The stems estev- or estiv- found in some inflections likely come from Vulgar Latin *stēvī (perfect in -ēv-, used by some Latin second conjugation verbs), hypothetical perfect stem that displaced original Classical Latin perfect stitī.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present indicative estou, past participle estado)

  1. (transitive with em or another locational preposition) to be (indicates location in space)
    Onde estás?Where are you?
    Estou em casa.I am at home.
  2. (copulative) to be (denotes a transient quality; a quality expected to change)
    O tempo estava frio.The weather was cold (at that moment).
    Estás louco?Are you crazy (right now)?
    A maçã está madura.The apple is ripe.
  3. (auxiliary with a and a verb in the infinitive (Portugal) or with the gerund (Brazil)) to be (forms the progressive aspect)
    Ela está cantando? / Ela está a cantar?Is she singing?
    Estavam trabalhando muito.They were working a lot.
    Estávamos a ler muito.We had been reading a lot.
    Estaremos a ler livros.We will be reading books.
  4. (transitive) to cost (to be worth a certain amount of money), especially of something whose price changes often
    Synonym: custar
    O quilo de maçã está a dois euros.
    A kilogram of apples costs two euros.
  5. to look (to give an appearance of being)
    Você está bonita.
    You look pretty.
  6. to stand
    Aqui estou.
    Here I stand.

Usage notes[edit]

Conjugation[edit]

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:estar.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • tar (Latin America, nonstandard)

Etymology[edit]

From Old Spanish estar, inherited from Latin stō, stāre (stand), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- (compare English stand). Cognate with English state.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /esˈtaɾ/, [esˈt̪aɾ]
  • (file)

Verb[edit]

estar (first-person singular present estoy, first-person singular preterite estuve, past participle estado)

  1. to be (have a temporary or permanent location in space).
    ¿Dónde estás?Where are you?
    Estoy en casa.I am at home.
  2. to be (denotes a copula, in a transient fashion).
    El tiempo estaba frío/caliente.The weather was cold/hot [back then].
    ¿Estás feliz?Are you happy [right now]?
  3. to be (auxiliary verb for the progressive/continuous aspect, preceding the gerund of the verb)
    Ella está cantando.She is singing.
  4. to be in a state (in a passive voice sense)
    Los vasos están rotos.
    The vases are broken. (In passive voice with estar, unlike haber, its past participle agrees with number and gender of the subject)
    Llegaron y vieron que el hotel estaba abandonado.They arrived and saw the hotel was abandoned.
  5. (reflexive, followed by adjective) to be, stay (denotes a copula, in a transient fashion)
    Estense callados y quietos.Stay quiet and not moving.
  6. (with por) to be to be done, to be (still) undone:
    Esto todavía está por hacer.This is still to be done.
    Lo peor está por llegar.The worst part is yet to come.
  7. to be in a long-term state (in specific idioms)
    estar muerto/ato be dead
    estar casado/ato be married (can also be ser casado)

Usage notes[edit]

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]