pro

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Translingual

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology

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Abbreviation of English Provençal + abbreviation of English old.

Symbol

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pro

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-2 & ISO 639-3 language code for Old Occitan.

English

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Late Middle English pro, from Latin prō (on behalf of).

Noun

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pro (plural pros)

  1. An advantage of something, especially when contrasted with its disadvantages (cons).
    Synonyms: advantage, plus, upside
    Antonyms: con, disadvantage, downside, minus
    What are the pros and cons of buying a car?
  2. A person who supports a concept or principle.
    Antonym: anti
Derived terms
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Translations
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Preposition

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pro

  1. In favor of.
    Antonym: anti
    He is pro exercise but against physical exertion, quite a conundrum.
Translations
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Etymology 2

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Clipping of professional.

Noun

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pro (plural pros)

  1. A professional sportsman.
  2. (colloquial) Professional.
    When it comes to DIY, he's a real pro.
Derived terms
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Translations
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Adjective

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pro (comparative more pro, superlative most pro)

  1. Professional.
    He landed a pro mentorship gig.
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Clipping of prostitute.

Noun

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pro (plural pros)

  1. (slang) A prostitute.
    • 1974, "Fynn" (Sydney Hopkins), Mister God, This Is Anna
      Millie was one of the dozen or so pros who had a house at the top of the street.
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Clipping of proproctor

Noun

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pro (plural pros)

  1. (UK, slang, archaic) A proproctor.
References
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  • John Camden Hotten (1873) The Slang Dictionary

Etymology 5

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An American WWII era poster advising service members to "take a pro" before having sexual relations.

Clipping of prophylaxis.

Noun

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pro (plural pros)

  1. (slang, historical) A chemical prophylaxis taken after sex to avoid contracting venereal disease.

See also

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Anagrams

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Catalan

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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pro m (plural pros)

  1. pro; benefit; bonus

Preposition

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pro

  1. pro, for; in favour of

Chinese

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Etymology

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From clipping of English professional.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /pʰou̯²²/, /pʰɹou̯²²/

Adjective

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pro

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) professional

Synonyms

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See also

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Czech

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Inherited from Old Czech pro, from Proto-Slavic *pro.

Preposition

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pro [with accusative]

  1. for
    Zabili ho pro peníze.They killed him for his money.

Etymology 2

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Noun

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pro n (indeclinable)

  1. pro (advantage)
    Synonym: klad
    Antonyms: proti, zápor
    Všechno má svá pro a proti.Everything has its pros and cons.

Further reading

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  • pro in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • pro in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Esperanto

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [pro]
  • Hyphenation: pro

Preposition

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pro

  1. caused by, because of, owing to, due to
  2. motivated by, for the sake of, on account of, for
  3. in exchange for

See also

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Finnish

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Etymology 1

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Learned borrowing from Latin pro or Ancient Greek πρό (pró).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈproː/, [ˈpro̞ː]
  • Rhymes: -oː
  • Syllabification(key): pro

Adverb

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pro (not comparable) (with nominative)

  1. instead of, rather than
    Synonym: sijaan
    Sana taipuu kusi:kusen (pro "kusin").
    The word is inflected kusi:kusen (not "kusin").

References

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  • Ruppel, Klaas, editor (2021–2023), Suomen etymologinen sanakirja [Finnish Etymological Dictionary] (Kotimaisten kielten keskuksen verkkojulkaisuja 72)‎[1] (in Finnish), Kotimaisten kielten keskus, →ISSN

Further reading

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Etymology 2

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Borrowed from English pro, from professional.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈproː/, [ˈpro̞ː]
  • IPA(key): /ˈprou̯/, [ˈpro̞u̯]

Adjective

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pro (not comparable) (colloquial)

  1. skilled
    Synonym: taitava
Declension
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Inflection of pro (Kotus type 21/rosé, no gradation)
nominative pro prot
genitive pron proiden
proitten
partitive prota proita
illative prohon proihin
singular plural
nominative pro prot
accusative nom. pro prot
gen. pron
genitive pron proiden
proitten
partitive prota proita
inessive prossa proissa
elative prosta proista
illative prohon proihin
adessive prolla proilla
ablative prolta proilta
allative prolle proille
essive prona proina
translative proksi proiksi
abessive protta proitta
instructive proin
comitative proine
Possessive forms of pro (Kotus type 21/rosé, no gradation)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative proni proni
accusative nom. proni proni
gen. proni
genitive proni proideni
proitteni
partitive protani proitani
inessive prossani proissani
elative prostani proistani
illative prohoni proihini
adessive prollani proillani
ablative proltani proiltani
allative prolleni proilleni
essive pronani proinani
translative prokseni proikseni
abessive prottani proittani
instructive
comitative proineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative prosi prosi
accusative nom. prosi prosi
gen. prosi
genitive prosi proidesi
proittesi
partitive protasi proitasi
inessive prossasi proissasi
elative prostasi proistasi
illative prohosi proihisi
adessive prollasi proillasi
ablative proltasi proiltasi
allative prollesi proillesi
essive pronasi proinasi
translative proksesi proiksesi
abessive prottasi proittasi
instructive
comitative proinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative promme promme
accusative nom. promme promme
gen. promme
genitive promme proidemme
proittemme
partitive protamme proitamme
inessive prossamme proissamme
elative prostamme proistamme
illative prohomme proihimme
adessive prollamme proillamme
ablative proltamme proiltamme
allative prollemme proillemme
essive pronamme proinamme
translative proksemme proiksemme
abessive prottamme proittamme
instructive
comitative proinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative pronne pronne
accusative nom. pronne pronne
gen. pronne
genitive pronne proidenne
proittenne
partitive protanne proitanne
inessive prossanne proissanne
elative prostanne proistanne
illative prohonne proihinne
adessive prollanne proillanne
ablative proltanne proiltanne
allative prollenne proillenne
essive pronanne proinanne
translative proksenne proiksenne
abessive prottanne proittanne
instructive
comitative proinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative pronsa pronsa
accusative nom. pronsa pronsa
gen. pronsa
genitive pronsa proidensa
proittensa
partitive protaan
protansa
proitaan
proitansa
inessive prossaan
prossansa
proissaan
proissansa
elative prostaan
prostansa
proistaan
proistansa
illative prohonsa proihinsa
adessive prollaan
prollansa
proillaan
proillansa
ablative proltaan
proltansa
proiltaan
proiltansa
allative prolleen
prollensa
proilleen
proillensa
essive pronaan
pronansa
proinaan
proinansa
translative prokseen
proksensa
proikseen
proiksensa
abessive prottaan
prottansa
proittaan
proittansa
instructive
comitative proineen
proinensa

Further reading

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French

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Clipping of professionnel(le).

Adjective

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pro (plural pros)

  1. (informal) professional
    Il est très pro.
    He's a real pro.

Noun

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pro m or f by sense (plural pros)

  1. (informal) professional
    Elle est une vraie pro.
    She's a real pro.
  2. (informal) a whiz, someone who is very good at something
    Nous avons affaire à un pro !
    We're dealing with a pro!

Further reading

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Etymology 2

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From prochain.

Adjective

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pro (plural pros)

  1. (informal) next
    la semaine pro
    next week

German

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin prō (for).

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pro (+ accusative or dative)

  1. per, each
    Synonyms: je, für
    Samt Mehrwertsteuer ergibt sich ein Kaufpreis von rund 30 Euro pro Stück
    After VAT the price comes to around 30 euros each.
    Der durchschnittliche Pro-Kopf-Konsum von Bier in Deutschland im Jahr 2018 summierte sich auf rund 101,1 Liter.
    Average beer consumption in Germany in 2018 came to 101.1 liters per head.

Usage notes

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  • Followed by a noun in either the accusative or dative case. No semantic distinction is made between the cases here. Examples from Duden:
    pro gefahrenen / gefahrenem Kilometerper kilometer travelled
    pro verkauftes / verkauftem Exemplarfor every copy sold
  • When used in a Latin phrase, the ablative is used according to the rules of Latin grammar: pars pro toto or Pars pro Toto, and pro forma or pro Forma.

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Ido

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Preposition

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pro

  1. because of

Indonesian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈpro]
  • Hyphenation: pro

Etymology 1

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Learned borrowing from Latin pro.

Adjective

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pro

  1. (colloquial) pro, in favor of.
    Synonym: setuju
  2. more.
    Synonym: lebih

Etymology 2

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From clipping of profesional (professional).

Noun

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pro (first-person possessive proku, second-person possessive promu, third-person possessive pronya)

  1. Clipping of profesional (professional).

Further reading

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Interlingua

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Latin prō, which is the predecessor of French pour, Italian pro and Spanish para via Vulgar Latin por. See also por.

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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pro

  1. for, to, for the sake of, not against
    Ille ha un dono pro te.
    He has a gift for you.
    Io ha votate pro iste candidato.
    I've voted for this candidate.
    Medicamento pro uso interne.
    Medication for internal use
  2. in place of, in exchange for, in return for
    Illa prendeva le robo pro solmente vinti euros!
    She got the dress for only twenty euros!
  3. (+ infinitive) to, in order to (expressing the intended purpose of an action)
    Io vole cantar pro facer te retornar.
    I want to sing to make you return.

Italian

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Etymology 1

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From Latin prō (for, on behalf of).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈprɔ/°, /pro/° (preposition)
    • Rhymes: , -o
    • Hyphenation: prò, pro
  • IPA(key): /ˈprɔ/* (noun)
    • Rhymes:
    • Hyphenation: prò
  • The preposition does not trigger syntactic gemination in the following word, but the noun does.

Preposition

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pro

  1. (archaic) for, in favor of/in favour of
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Noun

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pro m (invariable)

  1. (dated) good, benefit, advantage, weal
    • 1321, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Inferno, Le Monnier, published 1994, Canto II, p. 29, vv. 109-111:
      Al mondo non fur mai persone ratte ¶ a far lor pro o a fuggir lor danno, ¶ com'io, dopo cotai parole fatte.
      Never were persons in the world so swift ¶ to work their weal and to escape their woe, ¶ as I, after such words as these were uttered.
  2. pro (as in English “pros and cons”)

Etymology 2

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Borrowed from English pro.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈprɔ/*
  • Rhymes:
  • Hyphenation: prò

Noun

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pro m (invariable)

  1. (slang) pro

Ladin

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Noun

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pro m (plural pro)

  1. good; benefit; advantage

Latin

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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    From Proto-Italic *pro-, from Proto-Indo-European *pro-, o-grade of *per-.[1]

    The ablative is from the PIE locative. The accusative is like ante. The Late Latin accusative is from the case merger trend.

    Pronunciation

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    Preposition

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    prō (+ ablative, accusative) (accusative in Late Latin)

    1. for
    2. on behalf of, in the interest of, for the sake of
      • 6th century BC, Tibur pedestal inscription (CIL I2 2658; image (page 18)):
        𐌇𐌏𐌉𐌌𐌄𐌃𐌌𐌉𐌕𐌀𐌕𐌊𐌀𐌖𐌉𐌏𐌔[]𐌌𐌏𐌍𐌉𐌏𐌔𐌒𐌄𐌕𐌉𐌏𐌔𐌃[𐌏]𐌍𐌏𐌌𐌐𐌓𐌏𐌅𐌉𐌋𐌄𐌏𐌃
        HOIMEDMITATKAVIOS[]MONIOSQETIOSD[O]NOMPROFILEOD
        Hoi mēd mitāt Kāvios []monios Qetios d[ō]nom prō fileōd.
        Kavios []monios Qetios places me here as a gift on behalf of his son.
    3. before, in front of
    4. instead of
    5. about
    6. according to
    7. as, like
    8. as befitting

    Derived terms

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    Descendants

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    • Late Latin: pōr (see there for further descendants)
    • Sardinian: pro, po
    • English: pro
    • Finnish: pro
    • German: pro
    • Indonesian: pro
    • Portuguese: pró

    References

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    • pro”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    • pro”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
    • pro in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
    • pro in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
    • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[4], London: Macmillan and Co.
      • to make up, stir up a fire: ignem excitare (pro Mur. 25. 51)
      • as well as I can; to the best of my ability: pro viribus or pro mea parte
      • as well as I can; to the best of my ability: pro virili parte (cf. sect. V. 22.)
      • to die for one's country: mortem occumbere pro patria
      • to shed one's blood for one's fatherland: sanguinem suum pro patria effundere or profundere
      • to sacrifice oneself for one's country: vitam profundere pro patria
      • to sacrifice oneself for one's country: se morti offerre pro salute patriae
      • according to circumstances: pro re (nata), pro tempore
      • according to circumstances: pro tempore et pro re
      • to avoid no risk in order to..: nullum periculum recusare pro
      • to show gratitude (in one's acts): gratiam alicui referre (meritam, debitam) pro aliqua re
      • to thank a person (in words): gratias alicui agere pro aliqua re
      • to return good for evil: pro maleficiis beneficia reddere
      • according to a man's deserts: ex, pro merito
      • to strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter: pro viribus eniti et laborare, ut
      • this much I can vouch for: illud pro certo affirmare licet
      • to quote an argument in favour of immortality: argumentum immortalitatis afferre (not pro)
      • this goes to prove what I say: hoc est a (pro) me
      • the matter speaks for itself: res ipsa (pro me apud te) loquitur
      • to translate literally, word for word (not verbo tenus): verbum pro verbo reddere
      • to be security for some one: sponsionem facere, sponsorem esse pro aliquo
      • to revenge oneself on another for a thing or on some one's behalf: ulcisci aliquem pro aliquo or pro aliqua re
      • to give some one satisfaction for an injury: satisfacere alicui pro (de) iniuriis
      • to tell lies: falsa (pro veris) dicere
      • a religious war: bellum pro religionibus susceptum
      • to sacrifice human victims: pro victimis homines immolare
      • to fight for hearth and home: pro aris et focis pugnare, certare, dimicare
      • to support a bill (before the people): pro lege dicere
      • to go to Cilicia as pro-consul: pro consule in Ciliciam proficisci
      • to give evidence on some one's behalf: testimonium dicere pro aliquo
      • to state as evidence: pro testimonio dicere
      • to defend a person: causam dicere pro aliquo
      • to punish some one: ulcisci aliquem (pro aliqua re)
      • to be on duty before the gates: stationes agere pro portis
    • pro in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[5], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
    1. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2024) “pro-”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

    Luxembourgish

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    Etymology

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    From Latin.

    Pronunciation

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    Preposition

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    pro

    1. per

    Middle English

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    Etymology

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    From Latin prō.

    Pronunciation

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    Noun

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    pro

    1. (Late Middle English, rare) advantage, benefit, upside

    Descendants

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    References

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    Occitan

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    Pronunciation

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    Preposition

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    pro

    1. enough
      N'i a pro. - There is enough (of it).
    2. quite
      Una rauba pro polida. - A quite pretty dress.

    Old French

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    Etymology 1

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    Preposition

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    pro

    1. (very early Old French) Alternative form of por

    Etymology 2

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    From Late Latin prōde. Doublet of preu.

    Alternative forms

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    Noun

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    pro oblique singularm (nominative singular pro)

    1. profit, advantage
      • ca. 1050, Vie de Saint Alexis :
        Bons fut li sècles al tens ancienur, si ert créḍance, dunt or n'i a nul prut. Tut est muḍez, perdut aḍ sa colur.
        Good was the time of the ancients, as there was trust, in which nowadays there is no profit. Everything has changed and has lost its color.
      • 11th century, Chanson de Roland, 221-222 :
        E dist al Rei : « Ja mar crerez bricun, / Ne mei ne altre, se de vostre prod nun. [...] »
        (Ganelon speaks to Charlemaigne) And he said to the king, "You should never believe a madman: [believe] neither me nor anyone else, unless it is of your advantage. [...]"
    Descendants
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    Old Spanish

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    Etymology

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    From Late Latin prōde (useful), perhaps via Old Occitan pro.

    Pronunciation

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    Noun

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    pro f (usually uncountable)

    1. usefulness, advantage, benefit
      • c. 1200, Almerich, Fazienda de Ultramar, f. 5v:
        Andat ⁊ matemoſle. Echemoſle en aq̃l pozo. E ueremos que prol aura so suenno. []
        “Go and let us kill him. Let us throw him into that pit, and we shall see of what use his dream is to him! []
      • 1140 – 1207, Anonymous, Cantar de mio Cid 1374:
        Bien casariemos con sus fijas pora huebos de pro
        We would do well marrying his daughters, out of need for [our own] benefit.
      • 1140 – 1207, Anonymous, Cantar de mío Cid 1913:
        Andar le qiero amyo çid en toda pro
        I want to always support the Cid.
        (literally, “I want to walk for my Cid in every advantage.”)
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    Portuguese

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    Alternative forms

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    Etymology

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    Contraction of pra o.

    Pronunciation

    [edit]
     

    • Hyphenation: pro

    Contraction

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    pro (feminine pra, masculine plural pros, feminine plural pras)

    1. (colloquial) Contraction of pra o (for/to the (masculine singular)).
      Ana foi pros Estados Unidos, num foi? (=para os)
      Ana went to the United States, didn't she?

    Sardinian

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    Alternative forms

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    Etymology

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    From Latin pro.

    Pronunciation

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    Preposition

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    pro

    1. for

    Spanish

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    Pronunciation

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    • IPA(key): /ˈpɾo/ [ˈpɾo]
    • Rhymes: -o
    • Syllabification: pro

    Etymology 1

    [edit]

    Inherited from Old Spanish pro, from Late Latin prōde (useful).

    Noun

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    pro m (plural pros)

    1. usefulness, advantage, benefit
    Derived terms
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    Etymology 2

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    A recent Latinism, borrowed from Latin prō; see above. Doublet of por.

    Preposition

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    pro

    1. pro, in favor of, for
    Usage notes
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    Etymology 3

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    A very recent anglicism, borrowed from English pro.

    Noun

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    pro m or f by sense (plural pros)

    1. pro (professional)
      Ella es toda una pro.
      She's a real pro.

    Adjective

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    pro m or f (masculine and feminine plural pro or pros)

    1. pro (professional)
      Los atletas pro llegaron ayer, los otros vienen hoy.
      The pro athletes arrived yesterday, the rest are coming today.

    Further reading

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    Volapük

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    Preposition

    [edit]

    pro

    1. for
      • 1938, “Pö yelacen”, in Volapükagased pro Nedänapükans, page 1:
        Yel epasetiköl no ebinon bönik pro muf obsik.
        The past year has not been favorable for our movement.
      • 1938, “Ge lü Volapük!”, in Volapükagased pro Nedänapükans, pages 17-19:
        If xamobs yufapükis dabinöl, täno mutobs dasevön, das ons valik jenöfo binons geboviks pro disein.
        If we examine the existing auxiliary languages, we must admit that they are all indeed useful for the purpose.