deus

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See also: déus and Deus

Catalan[edit]

Noun[edit]

deus

  1. plural of deu

Verb[edit]

deus

  1. second-person singular present indicative form of deure

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese deus, from Latin deus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

deus m (plural deuses)

  1. god, deity

Related terms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Latin Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia la

Etymology[edit]

From Old Latin deivos, from Proto-Italic *deiwos, from Proto-Indo-European *deywós. An o-stem derivative from *dyew- (sky, heaven), from which also diēs and Iuppiter.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

deus m (irregular, genitive deī, feminine dea); second declension

  1. god, deity
    • c. 200 BCE – 190 BCE, Plautus, Captivi 138-140:
      HEGIO Ergasile, salvē. ERGASILUS tē bene ament, Hēgiō.
      HE. How are you, Ergasilus? ER. May the gods be kind to you, Hegio.
    • 106 BCE – 43 BCE, Cicero, De Haruspicum Responso 42:
      Hic vērō, dē quō ego ipse tam multa nunc dīcō. Prō, immortālēs! Quid est? Quid valet?
      And as for him, the man that I myself have now spent so many words on. Good god! What is he? What power does he exert?
    • 47 CE, Scribonius Largus, Compositiones medicamentorum 84.6-7, 17-19:
      Sī nōn vīderant medicī, meritō essent culpandī [] Et, ō bone deus, hī sunt ipsī, quī imputant suam culpam medicāmentīs quasi nihil proficientibus!
      If physicians didn't see this, they deserved to be blamed [] And, my god, these are the very people who blame their failure on medications, saying that they don't work!
    • ca. 19 BCE – ca. 31 CE, Velleius Paterculus, Historia Romana 2.126:
      Sacrāvit parentem suum Caesar nōn imperiō, sed religiōne. Nōn appellāvit eum, sed fēcit deum.
      Augustus deified his father [Julius] not by the exercise of power, but by creating an attitude of reverence. He did not just call him a god, but made him be one.
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Evangelium secundum Ioannem.1.1:
      In prīncipiō erat Verbum, et Verbum erat apud Deum, et Deus erat Verbum.
      In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word.
  2. epithet of high distinction
    • 106 BCE – 43 BCE, Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 4.16:
      fēcī idem quod in Πολιτείᾳ deus ille noster Platō.
      I did the same thing as our good old everything, Plato, had done in his Republic.
    • 70 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneis 5.392-393:
      "Entelle, hērōum quondam fortissime frūstrā [] Ubi nunc nōbīs deus ille, magister nēquīquam memorātus, Eryx? [] "
      "Entellus, once bravest of heroes, though in vain [] Where now is that divine Eryx [the Sicilian king], whom you have vaunted to be your teacher?

Declension[edit]

Second-declension noun (irregular).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative deus
diī
deī
Genitive deī deōrum
deûm
divom
Dative deō dīs
diīs
deīs
Accusative deum deōs
Ablative deō dīs
diīs
deīs
Vocative deus
diī
deī

Usage notes[edit]

  • The regularly constructed vocative singular form would be *dee, but this inflection is not attested to in Classical Latin; polytheistic Romans had no formal use for vocally addressing one of the many Roman deities by a generic term for god rather than address a deity by proper name. In Late Latin, following Rome's conversion to monotheistic Christianity, Deus was adopted as the vocative singular form to address the Christian God, attested to throughout the 4th century AD Biblical Latin Vulgate Bible of St. Jerome. Some scholars suggest dive was used as the classical vocative singular, while others believe the form simply did not exist prior to Christian Latin. However the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae and Oxford Latin Dictionary assert that the classical vocative singular was in fact deus, citing its rhetorical usage by Roman physician Scribonius Largus in the 1st century AD.[4]

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Aragonese: dios
  • Asturian: dios
  • Bourguignon: dei
  • Catalan: déu
  • Corsican: diu
  • Dalmatian: di, dai
  • Franco-Provençal: diô
  • Extremaduran: dios
  • French: dieu
  • Friulian: diu
  • Galician: deus
  • Istriot: deo

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weiss, Michael L. (2009) Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin[1], Ann Arbor: Beech Stave Press, →ISBN, page 225
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, second edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 1
  4. ^ John Rauk (April 1997) , “The Vocative of Deus and Its Problems”, in Classical Philology[3], volume 92, issue 2, pages 138-149

Further reading[edit]

  • deus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • deus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • deus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • deus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[4], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • God made the world: deus mundum aedificavit, fabricatus est, effecit (not creavit)
    • God is the Creator of the world: deus est mundi procreator (not creator), aedificator, fabricator, opifex rerum
    • the sovereign power of the gods: numen (deorum) divinum
    • to be an earnest worshipper of the gods: deos sancte, pie venerari
    • to honour the gods with all due ceremonial (very devoutly): deum rite (summa religione) colere
    • (ambiguous) worship of the gods; divine service: cultus dei, deorum (N. D. 2. 3. 8)
    • to make a pilgrimage to the shrines of the gods: templa deorum adire
    • to be regarded as a god: numerum deorum obtinere (N. D. 3. 20)
    • to deify a person: aliquem in deorum numerum referre, reponere
    • to consider as a god: aliquem in deorum numero referre
    • to approach the gods: propius ad deos accedere (Mil. 22. 59)
    • we believe in the existence of a God: deum esse credimus
    • to deny the existence of the gods: deos esse negare
    • belief in God is part of every one's nature: omnibus innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deum
    • an atheist: qui deum esse negat
    • to pray to God: precari aliquid a deo
    • to pray to God: precari deum, deos
    • to pray to God: supplicare deo (Sall. Iug. 63. 1)
    • to pray to God: adhibere deo preces
    • to call the gods to witness: testari deos (Sull. 31. 86)
    • to call gods and men to witness: contestari deos hominesque
    • and may God grant success: quod deus bene vertat!
    • and may heaven avert the omen! heaven preserve us from this: quod di immortales omen avertant! (Phil. 44. 11)
    • heaven forfend: di prohibeant, di meliora!
    • to appease the anger of the gods: deos placare (B. G. 6. 15)
    • (ambiguous) to give thanks to heaven: grates agere (dis immortalibus)
    • (ambiguous) the favour of heaven: dei propitii (opp. irati)
    • (ambiguous) worship of the gods; divine service: cultus dei, deorum (N. D. 2. 3. 8)
    • (ambiguous) belief in god: opinio dei
    • (ambiguous) to have innate ideas of the Godhead; to believe in the Deity by intuition: insitas (innatas) dei cognitiones habere (N. D. 1. 17. 44)
    • (ambiguous) Nature has implanted in all men the idea of a God: natura in omnium animis notionem dei impressit (N. D. 1. 16. 43)
    • (ambiguous) to thank, glorify the immortal gods: grates, laudes agere dis immortalibus
    • (ambiguous) with the help of the gods: dis bene iuvantibus (Fam. 7. 20. 2)
    • (ambiguous) to sacrifice: rem divinam facere (dis)

Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin duos, duas, the masculine and feminine accusative singulars of duo.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

cardinal number
2 Previous: un
Next: trois

deus (nominative dui)

  1. two

Descendants[edit]


Old Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin deus (god). See deus for more information.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

deus

  1. (Christianity) God

Descendants[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese deus (God), from Latin deus (god, deity), unusual in that it was derived from the nominative instead of the accusative (deum), from Old Latin deivos (god, deity), from Proto-Italic *deiwos (god, deity), from Proto-Indo-European *deywós (god, deity), from *dyew- (sky, heaven).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

deus m (plural deuses, feminine deusa, feminine plural deusas, feminine deia (poetic), feminine plural deias)

  1. god; deity
    Synonym: divindade

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Walloon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French deus (compare French deux), from Latin duōs, masculine accusative of duo.

Numeral[edit]

deus

  1. two