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Iuppiter Tonans (late first century statue)

Alternative forms[edit]


The nominative Iuppiter, for Iūpiter (with shift of the length from vowel to consonant per the "littera" rule), comes from a vocative combined with pater, and essentially meant "father Jove": Proto-Italic *djous patēr, from *djous ‎(day, sky) + *patēr ‎(father), from Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws ‎(lit. the bright one), root nomen agentis from *dyew- ‎(to be bright, day sky). It is cognate with Umbrian 𐌉𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 ‎(iupater), and in other Indo-European branches also Sanskrit द्यौष्पितृ ‎(dyauṣ-pitṛ), Ancient Greek Ζεῦ πατήρ ‎(Zeû patḗr, o father Zeus).

The oblique cases Iov-, Iovis continue the inflection of Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws. Cognates are Latin diēs (from the accusative case) and Ancient Greek Ζεύς ‎(Zeús).


Proper noun[edit]

Iuppiter m ‎(genitive Iovis); irregular declension

  1. The god Jupiter.
  2. (poetic) The sky.
  3. The planet Jupiter.
    • 1584: Johann Virdung of Hassfurt, De Cognoscendis, et Medendis Morbis ex Corporum Coelestium Positione
      [f. 7r] Ex Peripneumonia, Apoplexia, Pleuriſis cardiaca, Angina, [...] oriuntur.
      [f. 7v] HABENT Namque Planetæ ſpeciales influentias ſuper humani corporis membra ob exiſtentiam eorum in ſignis, vt in Ariete, Saturnus habet pectus. Iupiter ventrem. Mars caput. [etc.]


Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative Iuppiter Iovēs
genitive Iovis Iovum
dative Iovī Iovibus
accusative Iovem Iovēs
ablative Iove Iovibus
vocative Iuppiter Iovēs


Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


  • Iuppiter in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers