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Iuppiter Tonans (late first century statue)

Alternative forms[edit]


PIE root

The nominative Iuppiter comes from a vocative combined with pater, and essentially meant "father Jove": Proto-Italic *djous patēr, from *djous ‎(day, sky) + *patēr ‎(father). It is cognate with Umbrian 𐌉𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 ‎(iupater), and in other Indo-European branches also Sanskrit द्यौष्पितृ ‎(dyauṣ-pitṛ), Ancient Greek Ζεῦ πάτερ ‎(Zeû páter, o father Zeus).

The main root Iov-, Iovis is from Proto-Indo-European *dyew- ‎(sky) (also the source of Latin diēs). It is cognate with Ancient Greek Ζεύς ‎(Zeús), Hittite 𒅆𒍑 ‎(sius), Sanskrit द्यु ‎(dyú).


Proper noun[edit]

Iuppiter m ‎(genitive Iovis); irregular declension

  1. The god Jupiter.
  2. (poetic) The sky.
  3. The planet Jupiter.
    • 1584: Johann Virdung of Hassfurt, De Cognoscendis, et Medendis Morbis ex Corporum Coelestium Positione
      [f. 7r] Ex Peripneumonia, Apoplexia, Pleuriſis cardiaca, Angina, [...] oriuntur.
      [f. 7v] HABENT Namque Planetæ ſpeciales influentias ſuper humani corporis membra ob exiſtentiam eorum in ſignis, vt in Ariete, Saturnus habet pectus. Iupiter ventrem. Mars caput. [etc.]


Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative Iuppiter Iovēs
genitive Iovis Iovum
dative Iovī Iovibus
accusative Iovem Iovēs
ablative Iove Iovibus
vocative Iuppiter Iovēs

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]