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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


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From earlier *dyéws,[1] from *dyew- +‎ *-s.


*dyḗws m

  1. sky, heaven
  2. sky god


Athematic, hysterokinetic
nominative *dyḗws
genitive *diwés
singular dual plural
nominative *dyḗws *dyéwh₁(e) *dyéwes
vocative *dyéw *dyéwh₁(e) *dyéwes
accusative *dyḗm *dyéwh₁(e) *dyéwm̥s
genitive *diwés *? *diwóHom
ablative *diwés *? *diwmós
dative *diwéy *? *diwmós
locative *dyéw, *dyéwi *? *diwsú
instrumental *diwéh₁ *? *diwbʰí


  • Acc. sg. dyḗm (< *dyéw-m per Stang's law).
  • Nom. sg. dyḗws (with ē from acc. case).
  • For the name of the deity, *ph₂tḗr (father) is often added as an apposition, which inflects as well.

Compare with the attested Sanskrit forms


  • Proto-Anatolian:
  • Proto-Armenian: *tiw-
  • Proto-Hellenic: *dzéus (sky god, Zeus) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *dyā́wš (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *djous (see there for further descendants)
  • English: Dyeus

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2019), “Traces of Indo-European ‘Father Sky, God’ in Armenian”, in U. Bläsing, J. Dum-Tragut, T.M. van Lint, editors, Armenian, Hittite, and Indo-European Studies: A Commemoration Volume for Jos J.S. Weitenberg (Hebrew University Armenian Studies; 15), Leuven: Peeters, pages 195–196


  1. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 337
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, pages 408–409