Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/ph₂tḗr

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Etymology[edit]

    Often supposed to be from *peh₂- (to protect, shepherd) +‎ *-tḗr (agentive nominal suffix).

    Noun[edit]

    *ph₂tḗr m

    1. father
      Synonyms: *átta, *tata-

    Inflection[edit]

    Athematic, hysterokinetic
    singular
    nominative *ph₂tḗr
    genitive *ph₂trés
    singular dual plural
    nominative *ph₂tḗr *ph₂térh₁(e) *ph₂téres
    vocative *ph₂tér *ph₂térh₁(e) *ph₂téres
    accusative *ph₂térm̥ *ph₂térh₁(e) *ph₂térm̥s
    genitive *ph₂trés *? *ph₂tróHom
    ablative *ph₂trés *? *ph₂tr̥mós
    dative *ph₂tréy *? *ph₂tr̥mós
    locative *ph₂tér, *ph₂téri *? *ph₂tr̥sú
    instrumental *ph₂tréh₁ *? *ph₂tr̥mís

    Hypernyms[edit]

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Proto-Armenian: *hatir, *hayir
    • Proto-Celtic: *ɸatīr (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *fadēr (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic: *patḗr (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pHtā́ (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Italic: *patēr (see there for further descendants)
    • Mysian: πατριζι (patrizi, pl.)
    • Phrygian: πατερης (paterēs, nominative plural)
    • Proto-Tocharian: *pācer

    Further reading[edit]