ἰός

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See also: ιός, Ίος, and -ιος

Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *ihwós, a thematicization of Proto-Indo-European *(H)isu- (arrow). Cognates include Sanskrit इषु (íṣu, arrow) and Avestan 𐬌𐬱𐬎 (išu, arrow).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ῑ̓ός (īósm (genitive ῑ̓οῦ); second declension

  1. arrow
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.48
      ἕζετ᾿ ἔπειτ᾿ ἀπάνευθε νεῶν, μετὰ δ᾿ ἰὸν ἕηκε
      hézet épeit apáneuthe neôn, metà d iòn héēke
      Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow.
Inflection[edit]

Heteroclitic neuter plural:

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Hellenic *wihós, from Proto-Indo-European *wisós (fluidity, slime, poison). Cognates include Sanskrit विष (víṣa), Latin vīrus, Tocharian A wäs, and Tocharian B wase.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ῑ̓ός (īósm (genitive ῑ̓οῦ); second declension

  1. poison, venom
    • καὶ μὴ τυχοῦσαι πράγματος νικηφόρου, χώρᾳ μεταῦθις ἰὸς ἐκ φρονημάτων πέδοι πεσὼν ἄφερτος αἰανὴς νόσος
      And if they fail to win their cause, the venom from their resentment will fall upon the ground, an intolerable, perpetual plague afterwards in the land.
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Greek: ιός m (iós, venom)

Etymology 3[edit]

Uncertain. May be of the same origin as Etymology 2.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ῑ̓ός (īósm (genitive ῑ̓οῦ); second declension

  1. rust, verdigris
    • 380 BCE, Plato, The Republic 609a
      κακὸν ἑκάστῳ τι καὶ ἀγαθὸν λέγεις; οῖον ὀφθαλμοῖς ὀφθαλμίαν [] χαλκῷ δὲ καὶ σιδήρῳ ἰόν
      kakòn hekástōi ti kaì agathòn légeis; oîon ophthalmoîs ophthalmían [] khalkôi dè kaì sidḗrōi ión
      Do you say that there is for everything its special good and evil, as for the eyes ophthalmia [] and for bronze and iron rust?
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Expansion of original feminine-only pronoun ἴᾱ (íā), from *(h₁)éy.[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Adjective[edit]

ἰός (iósm (feminine ῐ̓́ᾰ, neuter ῐ̓όν); first/second declension

  1. selfsame
Inflection[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ῑ̓ός 2”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 595
  2. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ῑ̓ός 3”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 595
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ῑ̓ός 4”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 595
  4. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἴα”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 571