Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Reflex of initial laryngeal can be seen in Finnish kalja (from earlier *kaleja or *kaleta).


According to some the original meaning was "a bitter drink" and is related to Latin alūmen (alum) and Ancient Greek ἀλύδοιμος (alúdoimos, bitter, pungent).[1]

Another theory is that it is connected to Proto-Norse ᚨᛚᚢ (alu, something magical), and related to Latvian aluot (be distraught), Ancient Greek ἀλύω (alúō, to be distraught) and Hittite [script needed] (alwanzaḫḫ-, to bewitch, hex).[2] EIEC explains the semantic connection as: The notion would be that beer induced a "high" wherein the drinker was infused with a sort of magical power.

The most recent theory is that it is related to Sanskrit अरुष (aruṣá, reddish) and Avestan 𐬀𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬱𐬀(auruša, bright, white), from which Proto-Indo-Iranian *Harušás can be reconstructed from the two languages.[3] Compare also Albanian all (of reddish colour).



  1. beer


This noun needs an inflection-table template.



  • Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*aluþ-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 23–4
  • Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 60
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “awɫi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 29, 154
  • Abajev, V. I. (1958), “ælūton | ilæton, aluton”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume I, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 129
  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 33–4
  2. ^ Edgar C. Polomé, “Beer, Runes and Magic”, Journal of Indo-European Studies 24 (1996): 99–105.
  3. ^ Harald Bjorvand, “The Etymology of English ale”, Journal of Indo-European Studies 35 (2007): 1–8.