Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/

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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • *-ь (soft declension)

Etymology 1[edit]

Since mid-19th century two scenarios for the development of Indo-European *-os in Slavic have been proposed, respectively deriving this desinence:

  • immediately from Proto-Indo-European *-os with narrowing of the vowel in the final syllable.
  • from the accusative, analogically after other stem classes (u- and i-stems), probably to avoid homonymy with the neuter ending *-o.

A variant of the former view first proposed by Zaliznyak, Dybo and Nikolayev holds that IE *-os became *-ə in Slavic, which developed into *-ъ in mainstream dialects but into (-e) in Old Novgorodian. In the latter view, the Old Novgorodian ending can be considered original, with generalisation of the front variant from the soft declension.

Some authors also speculated that *-os could have had both outcomes depending on some other factors, with subsequent generalisation of one or the other in different grammatical categories.

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Suffix[edit]

*-ъ m

  1. (diachronic) Nominative singular desinence for masculine o-stems.
  2. (synchronic) Deverbative, in combination with o-grade of the root, forming nouns of the form *-CoC-ъ.
    *poteťi (to elapse; start flowing)*potokъ (brook, stream)
    *teťi (to flow (liquid); run (time) etc.)*tokъ (flow, stream)
    *gňiti (to rot)*gnojь (pus)
    *vesti (to drive, take, carry)*vozъ (cart, wagon)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Related terms[edit]
  • *-o (ending for hypocoristic masculine names) (argued to be the "real" reflex of PIE *-os)

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: ()
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: ()
      Glagolitic: -ⱏ ()

Etymology 2[edit]

Widely agreed to have been inherited from Proto-Indo-European *-om, itself composed from the thematic vowel *-o- and the accusative singular ending *-m. A small minority of researches instead argued for an extension of the u-stem ending.

Suffix[edit]

*-ъ

  1. Accusative singular desinence for masculine o-stems
Descendants[edit]
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: ()
    • Old Novgorodian: ()
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: ()
      Glagolitic: -ⱏ ()

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *-us, itself composed from the final vowel of the stem and the nominative singular ending *-s.

Suffix[edit]

*-ъ

  1. Nominative singular desinence for masculine u-stems
Descendants[edit]
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: ()
    • Old Novgorodian: ()
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: ()
      Glagolitic: -ⱏ ()

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *-um, itself composed from the final vowel of the stem and the accusative singular ending *-m.

Suffix[edit]

*-ъ

  1. Accusative singular desinence for masculine u-stems
Descendants[edit]
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: ()
    • Old Novgorodian: ()
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: ()
      Glagolitic: -ⱏ ()

Etymology 5[edit]

Two sources have been proposed, depending on the reconstruction of the Indo-European ending:

  • Proto-Indo-European *-ōm or *-oHom with some kind of shortening.
  • Proto-Indo-European *-om, the supposed athematic genitive plural alongside thematic *-ōm < *-o-om. A variant of this view holds that also thematic stems had *-om without the thematic vowel in Proto-Indo-European.

Proponents of the former view have sometimes connected the neocircumflex intonation in Slovene, the stem short vowel in Czech and the Serbo-Croatian desinence with the alleged Proto-Slavic length.

Suffix[edit]

*-ъ

  1. Genitive plural desinence for hard stems of all classes.
Descendants[edit]
  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: ()
    • Old Novgorodian: ()
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: ()
      Glagolitic: -ⱏ ()

Further reading[edit]