Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-us

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Suffix[edit]

*(é)-us[1]

  1. Forms adjectives from Caland system roots.

Inflection[edit]

Older proterokinetic pattern:

Athematic, proterokinetic
masculine feminine
nominative *(é)-us *(Ø)-éwih₂
genitive *(Ø)-éws *(Ø)-uyéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *(é)-us *(é)-uh₁(e) *(é)-ewes
vocative *(é)-u *(é)-uh₁(e) *(é)-ewes
accusative *(é)-um *(é)-uh₁(e) *(é)-ums
genitive *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-éwoHom
ablative *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-úmos
dative *(Ø)-éwey *? *(Ø)-úmos
locative *(Ø)-éw, *(Ø)-éwi *? *(Ø)-úsu
instrumental *(Ø)-úh₁ *? *(Ø)-úbʰi
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-éwih₂ *(Ø)-éwih₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-éwih₂es
vocative *(Ø)-éwih₂ *(Ø)-éwih₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-éwih₂es
accusative *(Ø)-éwih₂m̥ *(Ø)-éwih₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-éwih₂m̥s
genitive *(Ø)-uyéh₂s *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂oHom
ablative *(Ø)-uyéh₂s *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂mos
dative *(Ø)-uyéh₂ey *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂mos
locative *(Ø)-uyéh₂, *(Ø)-uyéh₂i *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂su
instrumental *(Ø)-uyéh₂h₁ *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *(é)-u *(é)-wih₁ *(é)-uh₂
vocative *(é)-u *(é)-wih₁ *(é)-uh₂
accusative *(é)-u *(é)-wih₁ *(é)-uh₂
genitive *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-éwoHom
ablative *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-úmos
dative *(Ø)-éwey *? *(Ø)-úmos
locative *(Ø)-éw, *(Ø)-éwi *? *(Ø)-úsu
instrumental *(Ø)-úh₁ *? *(Ø)-úbʰi

Later hysterokinetic pattern:[2]

Athematic, hysterokinetic
masculine feminine
nominative *(Ø)-ús *(Ø)-éwih₂
genitive *(Ø)-éws *(Ø)-uyéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-ús *(Ø)-úh₁(e) *(Ø)-úes
vocative *(Ø)-ú *(Ø)-úh₁(e) *(Ø)-úes
accusative *(Ø)-úm *(Ø)-úh₁(e) *(Ø)-úms
genitive *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-éwoHom
ablative *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-éwmos
dative *(Ø)-éwey *? *(Ø)-éwmos
locative *(Ø)-éw, *(Ø)-éwi *? *(Ø)-éwsu
instrumental *(Ø)-éwh₁ *? *(Ø)-éwbʰi
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-éwih₂ *(Ø)-éwih₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-éwih₂es
vocative *(Ø)-éwih₂ *(Ø)-éwih₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-éwih₂es
accusative *(Ø)-éwih₂m̥ *(Ø)-éwih₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-éwih₂m̥s
genitive *(Ø)-uyéh₂s *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂oHom
ablative *(Ø)-uyéh₂s *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂mos
dative *(Ø)-uyéh₂ey *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂mos
locative *(Ø)-uyéh₂, *(Ø)-uyéh₂i *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂su
instrumental *(Ø)-uyéh₂h₁ *? *(Ø)-uyéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-ú *(Ø)-úyh₁ *(Ø)-úh₂
vocative *(Ø)-ú *(Ø)-úyh₁ *(Ø)-úh₂
accusative *(Ø)-ú *(Ø)-úyh₁ *(Ø)-úh₂
genitive *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-éwoHom
ablative *(Ø)-éws *? *(Ø)-éwmos
dative *(Ø)-éwey *? *(Ø)-éwmos
locative *(Ø)-éw, *(Ø)-éwi *? *(Ø)-éwsu
instrumental *(Ø)-éwh₁ *? *(Ø)-éwbʰi

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ Lipp, Reiner (2009) Die indogermanischen und einzelsprachlichen Palatale im Indoiranischen: Neurekonstruktion, Nuristan-Sprachen, Genese der indoarischen Retroflexe, Indoarisch von Mitanni (Indogermanische Bibliothek; 3) (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Winter, page 27