Appendix:Old English strong declension

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  • If the first syllable in a two-syllable strong noun is long, the vowel of the second syllable is dropped when an ending is added. E.g. hēafod, plural hēafdu; engel, plural englas.
  • If an ending beginning with a, o, or u is added, æ or ea in a short syllable becomes a. E.g. dæġ, plural dagas; ġeat, plural gatu.
  • If a strong noun ends in a sonorant followed by h, the h is dropped and preceding vowel is lengthened when a suffix is added. E.g., wealh, plural wēalas.

Examples[edit]

Masculine[edit]

Citation form: stān m

singular plural
nominative stān stān·as
accusative
genitive stān·es stān·a
dative stān·e stān·um

Short feminine[edit]

Citation form: ġiefu f

singular plural
nominative ġief·u ġief·a or ġief·e
accusative ġief·e
genitive ġief·a
dative ġief·um

Long feminine[edit]

Citation form: sorg f

singular plural
nominative sorg sorg·a or sorg·e
accusative sorg·e
genitive sorg·a
dative sorg·um

Short neuter[edit]

Citation form: sċip n

singular plural
nominative sċip sċip·u
accusative
genitive sċip·es sċip·a
dative sċip·e sċip·um

Long neuter[edit]

Citation form: þing n

singular plural
nominative þing þing
accusative
genitive þing·es þing·a
dative þing·e þing·um

See also[edit]